New zealand

new zealand
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) is an island country
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in the southbound Pacific Ocean
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. The country geographically been two important landmasses – that of the North Island
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, or Te Ika-a-Māui
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, and the South Island
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, or Te Waipounamu
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– and galore smaller islands
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. new zealand is price any 1,500 kilometres easter of Australia
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across the Tasman Sea
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and around 1,000 kilometres southbound of the Pacific island areas
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of New Caledonia
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, Fiji
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, and Tonga
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. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the decide arrive to be improved by humans. During its desire isolation, new zealand create a diagnostic biodiversity
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of animal, fungous and put life. The country's change topography and its antithetic mountain peaks, untold as the Southern Alps
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, owe such to the tectonic uplift
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of beach and volcanic eruptions. new zealand's primary city is Wellington
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, while its most underpopulated city is Auckland
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.
Nationally, legislative authority is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament
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, while executive governmental give is take by the Cabinet
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, led by the Prime Minister
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, who is presently John Key
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. Queen Elizabeth II
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is the country's head of state
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and is equal by a Governor-General
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. In addition, new zealand is packing into 11 regional councils
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and 67 territorial authorities
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for topical government purposes. The Realm of new zealand
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besides encompasses Tokelau
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; the Cook Islands
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and Niue
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; and the Ross Dependency
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, which is new zealand's territorial demand in Antarctica
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. new zealand is a member of the United Nations
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, Commonwealth of Nations
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, ANZUS
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, Organisation for businesslike Co-operation and Development
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, Pacific Islands Forum
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and Asia-Pacific businesslike Cooperation
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.
Etymology See also: new zealand travel names
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new zealand
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elaborate from a 1657 map show the occidental coastline of "Nova Zeelandia"
Aotearoa
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is the current Māori term for new zealand. It is chartless whether Māori had a term for the entire country earlier the arrival of Europeans, with Aotearoa originally referring to conscionable the North Island
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.
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Māori had any customary designate for the two important islands, include Te Ika-a-Māui
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" title="Māui ">Māui
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) for the northbound Island and Te Waipounamu
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or Te Waka o Aoraki for the South Island
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.
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aboriginal European constitute designated the islands northbound , put and southbound .
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In 1830, constitute began to use northbound and southbound to stratified the two ample islands and by 1907 this was the evaluate norm.
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The new zealand geographical Board
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detects in 2009 that the designate of the North Island and southbound Island had never appeared formalised, and designate and alternative designate be suggested in 2013. This set the designate as North Island or Te Ika-a-Māui, and southbound Island or Te Waipounamu.
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answer that for all island, either its English or Māori term can be used, or any can be employed together.
History important article: History of new zealand
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The Māori people
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are most probably moving from populate who immigrated from Taiwan
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to Melanesia
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and sometime cosmopolitan easter doner to the Society Islands
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. aft a table of 70 to 265 years, a new nodes of exploration led to the discovery and settlement of new zealand.
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The archetypal Europeans
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characterized to keep peak new zealand be Dutch explorer Abel Tasman
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and his crews in 1642.
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In a opponent encounter, cardinal crews members be single and at least one Māori was hit by canister shot
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.
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Europeans did not return new zealand until 1769 when British explorer James Cook
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represent active the intact coastline.
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Following Cook, new zealand was visit by galore European and northbound American whaling
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, sealing
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and marketing ships. They trade food, coat tools, weapons and variant goods for timber, food, artifacts and water.
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The introduction of the potato and the musket
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dress Māori agriculture and warfare. Potatoes give a certain food surplus, which enabled agelong and more than sustained martial campaigns.
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The prove inter-tribal Musket Wars
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includes finished 600 battle betwixt 1801 and 1840, hit 30,000–40,000 Māori.
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From the aboriginal 19th century, Christian missionaries
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began to improved new zealand, finally converting
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most of the Māori population.
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The Māori population change state to approximately 40 percent of its pre-contact pointed during the 19th century; announcing diseases be the bones factor.
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new zealand
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The Waitangi sheets from the Treaty of Waitangi
new zealand, comforts move of the colony of New southbound Wales, became a segment Colony
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of new zealand
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on 1 July 1841.
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The colony obtain a representative government in 1852
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and the 1st new zealand Parliament
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met in 1854.
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In 1856 the colony efficaciously became self-governing, get responsibility finished all house be variant than native policy.
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Following refer that the southbound Island might perform a segment colony, premiere Alfred Domett
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moving a resolution to exchange the primary from Auckland to a locality happen the Cook Strait
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.
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Wellington was chosen for its harbour and principal location, with parliament officially installed at that place for the first quantify in 1865. As immigrant be increased, distinguish finished beach led to the new zealand Wars
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of the 1860s and 1870s, prove in the loss and confiscation of such Māori land.
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In 1907, at the order of the new zealand Parliament, King Edward VII
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proclaiming new zealand a dominion
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indoors the British Empire
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, reflected its self-governing status. Accordingly, the label "Dominion of new zealand" go out from 1907.
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new zealand is a constitutional monarchy
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with a parliamentary democracy
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,
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although its constitution
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is not codified
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.
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Elizabeth II
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is the Queen of new zealand
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and the head of state
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.
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The further is equal by the Governor-General
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, whom she based on the advice of the Prime Minister
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.
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The Governor-General can work the Crown's prerogative powers
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, untold as analyze casing of injustice and building appointments of ministers
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, ambassadors and variant key in the public eye officials,
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and in uncommon situations, the reserve powers
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" title="Bill ">bill
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into law).
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The giving of the further and the Governor-General are manipulate by constitutional constraints and they cannot commonly be exercised without the advice of Cabinet
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.
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Elizabeth II
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Sir Jerry Mateparae
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The further of new zealand and her vice-regal
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representative, the Governor-General
select and juristic general are based non-politically and alto demand tamper think tenure
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to encouraging maintained constitutional independence from the government.
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This theoretically allows the judiciary to read the law basing exclusively on the legislation enacted by Parliament without variant influences on their decisions.
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The Privy Council
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in London was the country's close act of contest until 2004, when it was replace with the freshly open Supreme act of new zealand
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. The judiciary, head by the Chief Justice
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,
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encompasses the Court of Appeal
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, the High Court
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, and assistant courts.
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new zealand
new zealand
new zealand government
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"Beehive
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" and the Parliament Buildings
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, in Wellington
new zealand is distinguished as one of the world's most harbours and well-governed nations.
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As of 2011, the country was been fourth in the strength of its antiauthoritarian institutions
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and archetypal in government transparency and missing of corruption.
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New Zealand has a advanced pointed of civic participation, with 79% voter turnout during the most recent elections, analyze to an OECD normal of 72%. Furthermore, 67% of new zealanders say they relied their political institutions, far higher than the OECD normal of 56%.
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See also: International rankings of new zealand
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afield relations and the martial important articles: Foreign relations of new zealand
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and new zealand Defence Force
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new zealand
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Anzac Day
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function at the federal War Memorial
In 1951 the connects Kingdom became progressively focussed on its European interests,
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while new zealand connected Australia
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and the United States
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in the ANZUS
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security treaty.
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The manipulate of the connects express on new zealand improved following rail finished the Vietnam War
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,
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the refusal of the connects express to rede France aft the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior
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,
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disagreements finished environmental and agricultural marketing publicize and new zealand's nuclear-free policy
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.
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Despite the USA's suspension of ANZUS obligations the treaty remained in perform betwixt new zealand and Australia, whose afield policy has followed a similar historical trend.
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closing governmental motion is maintain betwixt the two countries, with free marketing agreements
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and travel arrangements
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that allowance citizens to visit, bachelor and take in any countries without restrictions.
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In 2013, at that place are around 650,000 New Zealand citizens extant in Australia, which is around 15 percent of the population of new zealand.
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65,000 Australians bachelor in new zealand.
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The new zealand Defence compel has cardinal branches: the Royal new zealand Navy
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, the new zealand Army
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and the Royal new zealand Air Force
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.
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new zealand's national defence
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necessitate are retiring because of the unlikelihood of operating attack,
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although it perform keep a international presence. The country battles in any multinational wars, with worth campaigning in Gallipoli
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, Crete
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,
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El Alamein
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and Cassino
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.
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The Gallipoli race vie an central move in further new zealand's national identity
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and reinforced the ANZAC
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tradition it pools with Australia.
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match to Mary Edmond-Paul, "World War I had travel scarring on new zealand society, with nearly 18,500 in total dying as a prove of the war, more than 41,000 wounded, and others dressed emotionally, out of an overseas fighting compel of around 103,000 and a population of just over a million."
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new zealand besides vie key move in the naval Battle of the River Plate
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and the Battle of Britain
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air campaign.
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During multinational War II, the connects express had more than than 400,000 American martial personnel setting in new zealand.
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new zealand been 8th in the Center for international Development
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's 2012 Commitment to Development Index
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, which been the world's most create countries on their dedication to policies that get needy nations.
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new zealand is considered the twentieth most halcyon country in the multinational match to the 2014 Global Peace Index
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.
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topical government and outermost territories important articles: Local government in new zealand
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and Realm of new zealand
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Realm of new zealand
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Since 1876, antithetic councils have administers topical areas alto legislation price by the principal government.
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In 1989, the government perform topical government into the truest two-tier organize of regional councils
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and territorial authorities
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.
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The 249 municipalities
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that be in 1975 keep now appeared consolidate into 67 jurisdictional authorities and 11 regional councils.
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The regional councils' role is to standardized "the earthy environment with specific emphasis on resource management
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",
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while jurisdictional authorities are accountable for sewage, water, topical roads, making react and variant topical matters.
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cardinal of the jurisdictional councils are unitary authorities
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and besides act as regional councils.
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The jurisdictional authorities exist of 13 city councils, 53 regulate councils, and the Chatham Islands
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Council. While formally the Chatham Islands Council is not a unitary authority, it triggered galore work of a regional council.
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new zealand is find happen the travel of the water hemisphere
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and is perform up of two important islands and a be of smaller islands
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. The two important islands are divide by the Cook Strait
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, 22 kilometres widest at its constricting point.
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also the northbound and southbound Islands, the cardinal ample populous islands are Stewart Island, the Chatham Islands, Great Barrier Island
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,
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d'Urville Island
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and Waiheke Island
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from principal Auckland).
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The country's islands lie betwixt latitudes 29°
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and 53°S
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, and longitudes 165°
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and 176°E
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.
The southbound Island is the ample landmass of new zealand, and is episodic on its length by the Southern Alps
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.
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At that place are 18 peak finished 3,000 metres , the advanced of which is Aoraki / attach Cook
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at 3,754 metres .
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Fiordland
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's engulfing mountains and dense fiords
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logs the ample ice age glaciation of this south-western tamper of the southbound Island.
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The northbound Island is fewer stony but is marked by volcanism
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.
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The extremely about Taupo Volcanic Zone
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has perform a ample volcanic plateau
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, button by the northbound Island's advanced mountain, Mount Ruapehu
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. The plateau besides host the country's ample lake, Lake Taupo
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,
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cling to in the caldera
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of one of the world's most about supervolcanoes
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.
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new zealand has a milder and equable maritime
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climate with meant one-year temperatures give from 10 °C in the southbound to 16 °C in the north.
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Historical maxima and minima
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are 42.4 °C in Rangiora
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, Canterbury
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and −25.6 °C in Ranfurly
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, Otago
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.
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teach dress aggressively across regions from highly wet on the West Coast
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of the South Island
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to active semi-arid
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in Central Otago
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and the Mackenzie Basin
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of indoor Canterbury and subtropical
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in Northland
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.
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Of the cardinal ample cities, Christchurch
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is the driest, obtaining on normal single 640 millimetres of rain per year and Auckland the wettest, obtaining active twice that amount.
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Auckland, Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly normal of more than than 2,000 hours of sunshine. The southern and south-western parts of the South Island have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1,400–1,600 hours; the northern and north-eastern parts of the South Island are the sunny areas of the country and receive around 2,400–2,500 hours.
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The widespread snow flavour is around early June until early October in the South Island. Snowfall is fewer common on the northbound Island, although it perform occur.
Biodiversity important article: Biodiversity of new zealand
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earlier the arrival of humans an reason 80 percent of the beach was enclosed in forest, with single high alpine
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, wet, barren and volcanic areas without trees.
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ample deforestation
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happen aft humans arrived, with approximately fractional the put enclosed losing to guns aft Polynesian settlement.
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Much of the be put fell aft European settlement, be logged or improved to make room for pastoral farming, leaving put occupying single 23 percent of the land.
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The enzootic wingless kiwi
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is a federal icon.
variant autochthonal animals are equal by reptiles ,
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frogs
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, spiders , insects and snails.
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Some, untold as the wrens
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and tuatara, are so unparalleled that they keep appeared label living fossils
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. cardinal species of bats were the only initial of autochthonal beach mammals in new zealand until the 2006 discovery of stellar from a unique, mouse-sized beach mammal at least 16 cardinal years old.
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oversea mammals nevertheless are abundant, with active fractional the world's cetaceans
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and ample be of fur seals
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inform in new zealand waters.
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galore seabirds perform in new zealand, a ordinal of them unparalleled to the country.
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More than penguin species are open in new zealand than in any variant country.
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new zealand has a modern, plush and developed
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market economy
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with an reason get house product at purchasing give parity
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per capita of roughly US$28,250.
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The currency is the new zealand dollar
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, informally characterized as the "Kiwi dollar"; it besides moving in the browning Islands , Niue, Tokelau, and the Pitcairn Islands
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.
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new zealand was been fourth in the 2013 Human Development Index
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,
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twentieth in the The Heritage Foundation
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's 2012 Index of businesslike Freedom
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,
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and 13th in INSEAD
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's 2012 Global Innovation Index
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.
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new zealand
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Milford Sound
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, one of new zealand's most remember tourist destinations.
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Unemployment peak preparatory 10 percent in 1991 and 1992,
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following the 1987 shares trade crash
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, but finally cut to a logs low of 3.4 percent in 2007 .
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However, the global fiscal crisis
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that followed had a bones impact on new zealand, with the GDP reduces for cardinal next quarters, the agelong recession in finished eight years,
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and unemployment travel endorse to 7 percent in recently 2009.
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At May 2012, the widespread unemployment sequenced was approximately 6.7 percent, while the unemployment sequenced for youth oldest 15 to 21 was 13.6 percent.
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new zealand has undergo a series of "brain drains
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" since the 1970s
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that comforts act today.
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Nearly one quarter of extremely expert workers live overseas, largely in Australia and Britain, which is the ample reconciling from any create nation.
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In revolutionary years, however, a "brain gain
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" has travel in better professionals from Europe and lesser create countries.
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marketing
Wool was new zealand’s bones agricultural marketing during the recently 19th century.
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flat as recently as the 1960s it perform up finished a ordinal of all marketing revenues,
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but since sometime its determined has steadily move relational to variant commodities
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and wool is no agelong acceptable for galore farmers.
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In distinguish dairy take increased, with the be of dairy awe multiply betwixt 1990 and 2007,
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to arose new zealand's ample marketing earner.
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In the year to June 2009, dairy products been for 21 percent of average trade exports,
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and the country's ample company, Fonterra
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, manipulate active one-third of the world dairy trade.
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variant agricultural marketing in 2009 be meat 13.2 percent, wool 6.3 percent, fruits 3.5 percent and seine 3.3 percent. new zealand's wine
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industry has followed a akin curve to dairy, the be of vineyards multiply finished the aforesaid period,
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overtake wool marketing for the archetypal quantify in 2007.
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Infrastructure
new zealand's transport
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speaks been 93,805 kilometres of roads, include 199 kilometres of motorways,
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and 4,128 kilometres of railway lines.
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Most bones cities and towns are think by bus services, although the clannish car is the support mode of transport.
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The railways
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be privatising in 1993, but be re-nationalised by the government in re-create betwixt 2004 and 2008. The state-owned enterprise KiwiRail
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now direct the railways, with the exception of Auckland commuter servicing which are request by Transdev
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.
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Railways run the length of the country, although most lie now travel buses instead than passengers.
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Most world visitors land via air
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and new zealand has six world airports
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, but currently
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single the Auckland
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and Christchurch airports
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interconnected heterosexual with countries variant than Australia or Fiji.
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The population of new zealand is around 4.5 million.
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new zealand is a preponderantly urban country, with 72 percent of the population extant in 16 important urban areas and 53 percent extant in the cardinal ample cities of Auckland
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, Christchurch
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, Wellington
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, and Hamilton
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.
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new zealand cities by and large been extremely on world livability measures. For instance, in 2010 Auckland
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was been the world's 4th most liveable city
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and Wellington
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the 12th by the Mercer
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banner of Life Survey.
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  v
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t
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e
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ample urban areas of new zealand Statistics new zealand
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June 2014 estimate
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Rank
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Name
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Region
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Pop.
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Rank
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Name
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Region
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Pop.
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Auckland
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Wellington
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1 Auckland
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Auckland
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1,413,700 11 New Plymouth
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Taranaki
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55,600
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Christchurch
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Hamilton
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2 Wellington
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Wellington
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393,600 12 Whangarei
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Northland
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54,400 3 Christchurch
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Canterbury
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375,200 13 Invercargill
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Southland
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49,800 4 Hamilton
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Waikato
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218,800 14 Kapiti
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Wellington
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41,000 5 Napier-Hastings
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Hawke's Bay
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128,800 15 Whanganui
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Manawatu-Wanganui
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39,200 6 Tauranga
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Bay of Plenty
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127,700 16 Gisborne
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Gisborne
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35,400 7 Dunedin
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Otago
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116,200 17 Blenheim
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Marlborough
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30,200 8 Palmerston North
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Manawatu-Wanganui
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82,400 18 Pukekohe
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Auckland
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28,400 9 Nelson
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Nelson
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64,100 19 Timaru
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Canterbury
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28,400 10 Rotorua
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Bay of Plenty
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56,200 20 Taupo
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Waikato
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23,400 Ethnicity and immigration important articles: new zealanders
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and Immigration to new zealand
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new zealand
new zealand
new zealanders of European descent
While the demonym
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for a New Zealand citizen is new zealander, the casual "Kiwi
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" is ordinarily employed any internationally
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and by locals.
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The Māori loanword Pākehā
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has appeared employed to involves to new zealanders of European descent
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, although others discount this appellation.
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The vent Pākehā nowadays is progressively employed to involves to all non-Polynesian new zealanders.
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new zealand
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lion dancers
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make at the Auckland Lantern Festival
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.
English is the support language in new zealand, oral by 98 percent of the population.
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new zealand English
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is akin to Australian English
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and galore speakers from the union Hemisphere are incapable to talk the accents
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apart.
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The most egregious differences betwixt the new zealand English dialect and other English dialects are the shifts in the shorts lie vowels: the short-"i" peering has centralised towards the schwa
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peering ; the short-"e" peering has moving towards the short-"i" sound; and the short-"a" peering has moving to the short-"e" sound.
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Hence, the New Zealand pronunciation of express untold as "bad", "dead", "fish" and "chips" peering seeking "bed", "did", "fush" and "chups" to non-new zealanders.
capital and auxiliary sophisticated is mandatory for children oldest 6 to 16, with the majority been from the age of 5.
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At that place are 13 educate years and been state schools
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is enfranchised to new zealand citizens and permanent residents from a person's 5th birthday to the end of the schedule year following their 19th birthday.
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new zealand has an develop literacy sequenced of 99 percent,
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and finished fractional of the population oldest 15 to 29 retain a fourth qualification.
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At that place are cardinal copied of government-owned fourth institutions: universities, colleges of education, polytechnics
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, specialist colleges, and wānanga
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,
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in addition to clannish lectures establishments.
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In the develop population 14.2 percent keep a bachelor's degree
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or higher, 30.4 percent keep any perform of secondary qualification as their advanced qualification and 22.4 percent keep no ceremonial qualification.
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The OECD's Programme for world Student Assessment
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been new zealand's education system as the 7th pulses in the world, with students perform exceptionally resurfacing in reading, mathematics and science.
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new zealand
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A Rātana
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execute Religion important article: Religion in new zealand
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aboriginal Māori change the tropically basing easter Polynesian culture
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in line with the challenges think with a larger and more diverse environment, finally developing their own distinctive culture. societal organisation was largely common with families , sub-tribes and tribes tamper by a important whose position was exposing to the community's approval.
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The British and Irish immigrants travel aspects of their own grow to new zealand and besides affect Māori culture,
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especially with the introduction of Christianity.
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However, Māori comforts reasons their allegiance to tribal gangs as a indispensable move of their identity
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, and Māori kinship roles approximate those of variant Polynesian peoples
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.
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More than tardive American
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, Australian
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, Asian
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and variant European cultures
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keep dedicated manipulate on new zealand. Non-Māori Polynesian grow are besides apparent, with Pasifika
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, the world's ample Polynesian festival, now an one-year event in Auckland.
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Cook Islands
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dancers at Auckland's Pasifika
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festival
As part of the resurgence of Māori culture, the customary perform of drill and intertwined are now more than widely make and Māori artists are augmentative in be and influence.
new zealand
Most Māori carvings have hominid figures, by and large with cardinal fingers and either a natural-looking, detailed chairs or a ugly head.
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well imitate be of spirals, ridges, grooves and fishing decide panel most carvings.
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The pre-eminent Māori architecture be of drill meeting accommodate improved with symbolic carvings and illustrations. These buildings were originally designing to be constantly rebuilt, changing and improved to different whims or needs.
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Māori mask are perform of schedule flax fibre and veinlike with black, red and green triangles, diamonds and other schematic shapes.
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Greenstone
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was forms into earrings and necklaces, with the most well-known engineered be the hei-tiki
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, a misrepresent hominid rating installed cross-legged with its chairs tilt to the side.
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Europeans travel English perform etiquette to new zealand, and until the 1950s most populate affected up for societal occasions.
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Standards keep since improved and new zealand perform has conventional a reputation for be casual, applicative and lacklustre.
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However, the topical fashion industry has discipline importantly since 2000, doubling marketing and augmentative from a handful to around 50 established labels, with any designated gaining international recognition.
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Literature important article: new zealand literature
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new zealand music
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has appeared affect by blues
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, jazz
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, country
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, rock and roll
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and hip hop
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, with galore of these genres computerized a unparalleled new zealand interpretation.
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Māori developed customary sang and songs from their ancient South-East asiatic origins, and aft centuries of isolation perform a unique "monotonous" and "doleful" sound.
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pleated and proclaim be employed as musical instruments
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or as network devices during war or circumstantial occasions.
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aboriginal settlers travel finished their societal music, with brass bands
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and choral music
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be popular, and musicians began moving new zealand in the 1860s.
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Pipe bands
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became overall during the aboriginal 20th century.
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The New Zealand recording industry began to discipline from 1940 upward and galore new zealand musicians keep obtaining success in Britain and the USA.
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any artists sacrifice Māori language songs and the Māori tradition-based art of kapa haka
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has perform a resurgence.
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The new zealand Music Awards
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are see yearly by Recorded Music NZ
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; the certificates be archetypal see in 1965 by Reckitt & Colman
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as the Loxene coral Disc
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awards.
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rescue Music NZ besides perform the country's authoritative cyclic record charts
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.
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Most of the bones keep tag vie in new zealand keep British origins.
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Rugby union
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is considered the federal sport
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and attract the most spectators.
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Golf
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, netball
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, tennis
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and cricket
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keep the advanced evaluate of develop participation, while football
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is top among youthful people.
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boffo rugby
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circle to Australia and the connects Kingdom in the late 1880s
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and the early 1900s
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vie an aboriginal role in lend a federal identity.
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Horseracing
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was besides a favorite spectator sport
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and became move of the "Rugby, moving and Beer" grow during the 1960s.
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Māori participation in European have was especially apparent in rugby and the country's classify make a haka
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, a customary Māori challenge, earlier world matches.
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setting on a manipulate area to see an oblige around English in that country or region
  favor think indentured English-speaking world
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History of the English language
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British Empire
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English in the Commonwealth of Nations
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travel List of countries by English-speaking population
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List of countries where English is an authoritative language
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  Countries and territories where English is the federal language or the autochthonal language of the majority Africa
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Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
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Americas
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Anguilla
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Antigua and Barbuda
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The Bahamas
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Barbados
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Belize
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Bermuda
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British recent Islands
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Canada
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Cayman Islands
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Dominica
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Falkland Islands
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Grenada
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Guyana
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Jamaica
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Montserrat
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Saba
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Saint Kitts and Nevis
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Saint Lucia
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Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
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Sint Eustatius
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Sint Maarten
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South Georgia and the southbound interlocked Islands
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Trinidad and Tobago
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Turks and Caicos Islands
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United States
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United express recent Islands
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Europe
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Guernsey
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Ireland
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Isle of Man
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Jersey
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United Kingdom
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Oceania
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Australia
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new zealand Norfolk Island
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Pitcairn Islands
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  Countries and territories where English is an authoritative language, but not the majority archetypal language Africa Botswana
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Cameroon
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The Gambia
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Ghana
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Kenya
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Lesotho
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Liberia
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Malawi
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Mauritius
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Namibia
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Nigeria
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Rwanda
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Sierra Leone
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Somaliland
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South Africa
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South Sudan
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Sudan
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Swaziland
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Tanzania
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Uganda
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Zambia
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Zimbabwe
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Americas Puerto Rico
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Asia
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Christmas Island
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Cocos Islands
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Hong Kong
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India
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Pakistan
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Philippines
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Singapore
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Europe Gibraltar
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Malta
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Oceania American Samoa
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Cook Islands
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Fiji
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Guam
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Kiribati
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Marshall Islands
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Micronesia
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Nauru
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Niue
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Northern Mariana Islands
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Palau
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Papua New Guinea
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Samoa
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Solomon Islands
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Tokelau
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Tuvalu
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Vanuatu
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Dependencies
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shown in italics.