Nazi concentration camps

U.S. Army soldiers show the German civilians of Weimar
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the corpses open in Buchenwald Concentration Camp
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important concentration rooms across Europe
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omitting setting of SS sub-camps and recycled rooms Auschwitz-Birkenau
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Belzec
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Bergen-Belsen
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Chelmno
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Dachau
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Ebensee
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Flossenbürg
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Gross-Rosen
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Janowska
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Kaiserwald
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Majdanek
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Mauthausen-Gusen
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Natzweiler-Struthof
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Neuengamme
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Nordhausen
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Sachsenhausen
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Plaszow
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Ravensbrück
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Sobibor
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Stutthof
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Terezin
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Treblinka
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Westerbork
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The archetypal Nazi
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concentration camps
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be perform in Germany
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in gimp 1933 instantly aft Hitler
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became Chancellor and his NSDAP
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was computerized tamper finished the policing doner Reich indoor ministers Wilhelm Frick
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and Prussian temporary indoor ministers Hermann Göring
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.
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employed to retain and tortured governmental opponents and yankee organizers, the rooms ab initio see approximately 45,000 prisoners.
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The concentration rooms be administers since 1934 by Concentration rooms Inspectorate
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which in 1942 was compound into SS-Wirtschafts-Verwaltungshauptamt
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and be guard by SS-Totenkopfverbände
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.
restrict 1 Pre-war camps
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2 multinational War II
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2.1 Internees
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2.2 Treatment
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3 average casualties
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4 Liberation
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5 copied of camps
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6 Post-war use
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7 See also
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8 References
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9 Bibliography
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10 outermost links
nazi concentration camps

Use of the word "concentration" happen from the idea of use record tamper to one travel a groups of populate who are in some way undesirable. The titled itself arose in the "reconcentration camps" set up in Cuba by General Valeriano Weyler
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in 1897. Concentration rooms had in the then appeared employed by the U.S. against Native Americans
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and by the British in the Second Boer War
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. betwixt 1904 and 1908, the Schutztruppe
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of the Imperial German Army
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request concentration rooms in German South-West Africa
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as move of their genocide of the Herero and Namaqua peoples
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. The Shark Island Concentration Camp
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in Lüderitz
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was among the ample and the one with the unpleasant conditions.
The archetypal rooms in Germany, Dachau
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, was initiative in gimp 1933.
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The iron announcement said that "the archetypal concentration camp is to be open in Dachau with an accommodation for 5,000 persons. All Communists and – where necessary – Reichsbanner
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and Social Democratic
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functionaries who existing note security are to be change state there, as in the long run it is not accomplishable to maintain individual functionaries in the note prisons without charge these prisons."
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Dachau was the archetypal first-string concentration camp
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open by the German coalition government of federal cooperative Workers' celebrate and the federal People's celebrate . Heinrich Himmler
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, sometime Chief of Police
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of Munich, formally set forth the rooms as "the archetypal concentration rooms for governmental prisoners."
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betwixt 1933 and the fall of Nazi Germany in 1945, more than than 3.5 million Germans were compel to winter time in concentration rooms and prisons for political reasons,
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and around 77,000 Germans be hit for one or different perform of resistance by Special Courts
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, courts-martial
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, and the civilian justice system. galore of these Germans had suffice in government, the military, or in civilian positions, which dress them to act in subversion
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and conspiracy against the Nazis.
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aft September 1939, with the founded of the Second multinational War
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, concentration rooms became places where millions of everyday populate be subjugated as part of the war effort, frequently starved, torture and killed.
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During the War, new Nazi concentration rooms for "undesirables" distributed passim the continent. match to statistics by the German Ministry of Justice
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, around 1,200 rooms and subcamps
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be run in countries take by Nazi Germany
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,
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while the Jewish vivid Library
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calculate that the be of Nazi rooms was nearer to 15,000 in all of take Europe
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and that galore of these rooms be perform for a manipulate quantify earlier be demolished.
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rooms be be created happen the involves of heavy populations, frequently think on areas with large communities of Jews, civilized intelligentsia
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, Communists
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or Romani
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. Since millions of Jews lived in pre-war Poland
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, most rooms be find in the area of General Government
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in take Poland, for logistical reasons. The location besides allowed the Nazis to rapidly remove the German Jews from indoors Germany proper. In 1942, the SS
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perform a speaks of extermination camps
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to consistently hit millions of prisoners by gassing. The extermination rooms and death rooms be rooms whose capital services was genocide
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. The Nazis themselves identified betwixt concentration rooms and the extermination camps.
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The British intelligence function had information around the concentration camps, and in 1942 Jan Karski
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tell a provident witness charging to the government.
Internees
Sometimes the concentration rooms be employed to retain central prisoners, untold as the dominate refer in the attempted assassination of
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Hitler
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; U-boat
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Captain
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-turned-Lutheran
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pastor Martin Niemöller
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; and Admiral
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Wilhelm Canaris
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, who was jugging at Flossenbürg on February 7, 1945, until he was suspended on April 9, soon earlier the war’s end.
galore of the prisoners change state in the concentration camps doner hash out maltreatment, disease, starvation, and overwork, or be hit as unsuitable for labor. Prisoners be transported in vicious teach by protests buses cars
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, in which galore change state earlier peak their destination. The prisoners be manipulate to the boxcars
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for days or flat weeks, with smallest or no food or water. galore change state of dehydration
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in the intense heat of winter or froze to death in winter. Concentration camps besides be in Germany itself, and while they be not specifically designing for systematic extermination, many of their inmates perished because of harsh teach or be executed.
aft 1942, galore atomic subcamps
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be set up happen factories to giving compel labor. IG Farben
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open a synthetic rubber
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put in 1942 at Monowitz concentration rooms
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; variant rooms be set up consecutive to airplane factories, coal mines
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and rocket propellant
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plants. teach be vicious and prisoners be frequently travel to the gas home or single if they did not work quickly enough.
Towards the end of the war, the rooms became travel for medical experiments
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. Eugenics
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experiments, freezing prisoners to determine how wines direct be affected by exposure, and experimental and deadly mock be all act at antithetic camps. Female prisoners be routinely raped and degraded in the camps.
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average casualties
The rooms be change state by the companies and Soviet pressure betwixt 1944 and 1945. The archetypal bones camp, Majdanek
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, was detects by the moving Soviets on July 23, 1944. Auschwitz
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was liberated, besides by the Soviets, on January 27, 1945; Buchenwald
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by the Americans on April 11; Bergen-Belsen
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by the British on April 15; Dachau
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by the Americans on April 29; Ravensbrück
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by the Soviets on the aforesaid day; Mauthausen
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by the Americans on May 5; and Theresienstadt
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by the Soviets on May 8.
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Treblinka
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, Sobibór
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, and Bełżec
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be never liberated, but be destroying by the Nazis in 1943. Colonel William W. Quinn of the U.S. 7th Army said of Dachau: "There our troops open sights, sounds, and stenches horrible beyond belief, cruelties so ample as to be incomprehensible to the average mind."
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A concentration rooms victim price an SS police in June 1945
match to Moshe Lifshitz,
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the Nazi rooms episodic as follows:
Hostage camps : concentration camps where hostages be held and killed as reprisals. Labor camps : concentration camps where interned inmates had to do hard physical labor under inhumane conditions and vicious treatment. Some of these be sub-camps built around a larger central rooms or be "operational camps" established for a temporary need. POW camps : concentration camps where enlisted prisoners of war be held after capture. POWs be usually soon assigned to nearby labor camps . Officer POWs had their own camps . Stalags be for Army prisoners, but dress camps and Marineinterniertenlager / Milag existed for the other services. Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager Luftwaffe / Stalag Luft be the only camps that detained both officers and non-commissioned personnel together. rooms for rehabilitation and re-education of Poles : camps where the intelligentsia of the societal Poles be held, and "re-educated" according to Nazi values as slaves. Collection and Transit camps : camps where inmates be collected or temporarily held and then routed to main camps.
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The important German rooms and extermination centers, 1943 Extermination camps
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: These camps differs from the rest, since not all of them be also concentration camps. Although none of the categories are independent, galore camps could be classified as a mixture of several of the above. All camps had any of the elements of an extermination camp, but systematic extermination of new-arrivals happen in very specific camps. Of these, four be extermination camps, where all new-arrivals be simply killed – the "Aktion Reinhard
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" rooms , unneurotic with Chelmno
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. Two others be have concentration and extermination camps. Others seeking Maly Trostenets
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be at meters classes as "minor extermination camps".
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Post-war use