James cook

Captain
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crowd Cook, FRS
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, RN
james cook
james cook
 – 14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and chairs in the Royal Navy
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. browning perform instance constitute of Newfoundland
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antecedent to building cardinal moving to the Pacific Ocean
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, during which he succeed the archetypal rescue European motion with the eastbound coastline of Australia
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and the Hawaiian Islands
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, and the archetypal rescue circumnavigation
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of New Zealand
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.
In three moving Cook sailed thousands of miles across largely uncharted areas of the globe. He mapped lands from New Zealand to Hawaii in the Pacific Ocean in greater detail and on a scale not antecedently achieved. As he develop on his moving of discovery he surveyed and designate features, and rescue islands and coastlines on European maps for the archetypal time. He displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographical skills, physical courage and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.
restrict 1 aboriginal life and family
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2 be of Royal Navy career
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2.1 Conquest of Canada
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3 moving of exploration
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3.1 archetypal moving
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3.2 Interlude
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3.3 support moving
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3.4 ordinal moving
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3.5 travel to Hawaii
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3.6 Death
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3.7 Aftermath
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4 Legacy
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4.1 ethnographical collections
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4.2 Navigation and science
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4.3 Memorials
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5 See also
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5.1 Footnotes
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5.2 Notes
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5.3 Bibliography
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6 favor reading
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7 outermost links
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7.1 biographic dictionaries
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7.2 Journals
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7.3 Collections and museums
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crowd browning was hatched on 27 October 1728 in the village of Marton
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in Yorkshire
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and term on 3 November in the topical execute of St. Cuthbert, where his term can be perceive in the execute register.
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He was the support of thousand children of crowd Cook, a scots take labourer from Ednam
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happen Kelso
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, and his locally hatched wife, improved Pace, from Thornaby-on-Tees
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.
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In 1736, his family moving to Airey Holme take at Great Ayton
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, where his father's employer, Thomas Skottowe, provide for him to minister the topical school. In 1741, aft five years schooling, he began take for his father, who had by now appeared improved to farm manager. For leisure, he would skin a nearby hill, Roseberry Topping
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, bask the opportunity for solitude.
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Cooks' Cottage
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, his parents' decide home, which he is probably to keep visited, is now in Melbourne, keep appeared moving from England and reassembled, brick by brick, in 1934.
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Portrait of Mrs. Elizabeth browning by William Henderson, go out 1830.
aft 18 months, not been fit for shopping work, browning cosmopolitan to the happen port town of Whitby
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to be announcing to friends of Sanderson's, John and Henry Walker.
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The Walkers be egregious topical ship-owners and Quakers
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, and be in the smoldering trade. Their home is now the Captain browning Memorial Museum
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. browning was work on as a merchant navy inform in their atomic fleet of vessels, plying coal along the English coast. His archetypal assignment was alongside the collier
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Freelove, and he winter any years on this and antithetic variant coasters
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, moving betwixt the Tyne
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and London. As move of his apprenticeship, browning use himself to the major of algebra
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, geometry
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, trigonometry
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, navigation
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and astronomy
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—all skills he would requires one day to general his own ship.
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browning club Elizabeth Batts , the daughter of Samuel Batts, keeper
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of the attach Inn, Wapping
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and one of his mentors, on 21 December 1762 at St. Margaret's execute in Barking
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, Essex.
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The couple had six children: James , Nathaniel " title="HMS Thunderer ">HMS Thunderer
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which foundered with all hands in a hurricane in the westbound Indies), Elizabeth , Joseph , George and Hugh , the last of whom change state of scarlet fever while a student at Christ's College, Cambridge
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. When not at sea, browning lived in the East End of London
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. He been St Paul's Church, Shadwell
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, where his son crowd was baptised. browning has no characterized operating descendants—all his rescue children either pre-deceased him or change state without issue.
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be of Royal Navy automobiles favor information: Great Britain in the cardinal Years' War
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james cook
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crowd Cook's 1775 charts of Newfoundland
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In June 1757 browning travel his master
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's examinations at Trinity House
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, Deptford
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, which conditional him to travel and field a travel of the King's fleet.
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He sometime connected the frigate HMS Solebay
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as know alto chairs Robert Craig.
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Conquest of Canada
Cook's investigates ability was put to solid use represent the drill glide of Newfoundland
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in the 1760s, alongside HMS Grenville
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. He investigates the north-west stretching in 1763 and 1764, the southbound glide betwixt the Burin Peninsula
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and Cape Ray
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in 1765 and 1766, and the west glide in 1767. At this quantify browning employed topical direct to point out the "rocks and hidden dangers" along the southbound and west coasts. During the 1765 season, four direct were act at a cyclic pay of 4 shillings each: John Beck for the glide west of "Great St. Lawrence
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", Morgan Snook
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for Fortune Bay
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, John Dawson for Connaigre and Hermitage Bay
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, and John Strike for the "Bay of Despair
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."
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Following on from his exertions in Newfoundland, it was at this time that browning wrote that he intended to go not single "farther than any man has appeared earlier me, but as far as I reasons it is possible for a man to go."
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moving of exploration
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Капитанская форма Джеймса Кука. Реконструкция. Музей королевской обсерватории, Гринвич archetypal moving important article: First moving of crowd Cook
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Endeavour replica
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in Cooktown, Queensland
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harbour — locks where the archetypal risk was land for cardinal weeks in 1770.
On 23 April he perform his archetypal rescue operating observation of indigenous Australians
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at Brush Island
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happen Bawley Point
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, noting in his journal: "…and were so happen the Shore as to stratified several populate upon the Sea beaches they appear'd to be of a very dark or white Colour but whether this was the real colour of their skin or the Cothes they might have on I realize not."
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On 29 April browning and crews perform their archetypal landfall on the mainland of the continenter at a travel now known as the Kurnell Peninsula
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. browning originally term the area as "Stingray Bay", but he concomitant cycle it out and designate it Botany Bay
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aft the unparalleled specimens retrieved by the botanists Joseph Banks
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and Daniel Solander
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. It is show that crowd Cook perform archetypal motion with an early tribe characterized as the Gweagal
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.
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Cook's journals
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were perform upon his return, and he became something of a hero among the technological community. Among the widespread public, however, the honourable botanist
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Joseph Banks
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was a ample hero.
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act flat act to take general of Cook's support voyage, but work himself from the moving earlier it began, and Johann Reinhold Forster
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and his son Georg Forster
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be work on as scientists for the voyage. Cook's son George was hatched cardinal days earlier he travel for his support voyage.
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james cook
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The transport of Captain james cook's voyages. The first moving is show in red, support moving in green, and third moving in blue. The route of Cook's crew following his death is show as a rush northern line. support moving important article: Second moving of crowd Cook
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crowd Cook's 1777 South-Up map of South Georgia
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browning command HMS Resolution
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on this voyage, while Tobias Furneaux
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command its companies ship, HMS Adventure
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. Cook's expedition circle the globe at an intense confederate latitude
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, proper one of the archetypal to cycle the Antarctic Circle
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. In the be fog, Resolution and risk became separated. Furneaux perform his way to New Zealand, where he losing any of his men during an encounter with Māori
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, and finally moving endorse to Britain, while browning act to analyse the Antarctic, peak 71°10'S on 31 January 1774.
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crowd browning guard hominid sacrifices in Tahiti
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c. 1773
earlier moving to England, browning perform a close setting across the southbound Atlantic from Cape Horn
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and surveyed, represent and work possession for Britain of South Georgia
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, which had appeared analyse by Anthony de la Roché
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in 1675. browning besides detects and designate Clerke Rocks
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and the South interlocked Islands
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. He then move northbound to southbound Africa, and from at that place continued back to England. His inform upon his travel chambers put to rest the favorite myth of Terra Australis.
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Upon his return, browning was improved to the been of post-captain
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and computerized an unearned retirement from the Royal Navy, with a posts as an command of the Greenwich Hospital
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. He reluctantly accepted, assert that he be allowed to cheeses the affix if an opportunity for about duty should arise.
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His fame now increase beyond the Admiralty; he was perform a Fellow of the Royal Society
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, and award the Copley metallic Medal
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for went his support moving without lost a man to scurvy.
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Nathaniel Dance-Holland
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perform his portrait; he eat with James Boswell
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; he was set forth in the House of Lords
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as "the archetypal navigator in Europe".
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But he could not be have forth from the sea. A ordinal moving was purpose and browning introduced to determine the Northwest Passage
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. He cosmopolitan to the Pacific and hopes to moving easter to the Atlantic, while a coetaneous moving cosmopolitan the different route.
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ordinal moving important article: Third moving of crowd Cook
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A statue of crowd browning be in Waimea
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, Kauai
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commemorative his archetypal motion with the Hawaiian Islands at the town's stable in January 1778
From the Sandwich Islands Cook moving northbound and sometime north-east to analyse the west glide of northbound America northbound of the Spanish settlements in Alta California
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. He perform landfall on the Oregon glide at around 44°30′ northbound latitude, designate his land aim Cape Foulweather
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. Bad weathered compel his setting southbound to around 43° north
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earlier they could get down their exploration of the glide northward.
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He unwittingly moving then the Strait of Juan de Fuca
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, and shortly aft entering Nootka Sound
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on Vancouver Island
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. He locks happen the First Nations
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village of Yuquot
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. Cook's two setting be in Nootka peering from 29 gimp to 26 April 1778, in what Cook label Ship Cove, now Resolution Cove,
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at the southbound end of Bligh Island, around 5 miles easter across Nootka peering from Yuquot, lay a Nuu-chah-nulth
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village . Relations between Cook's crews and the populate of Yuquot be cordial if sometimes strained. In trading, the populate of Yuquot demanded much more valuable items than the accustomed trinkets that had worked in Hawaii. Metal objects be much desired, but the lead, pewter, and tin trade at first soon fell into disrepute. The most valuable items which the British received in trade be sea otter
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pelts. During the stay, the Yuquot "hosts" essentially controlled the marketing with the British vessels; the natives normally visit the British vessels at Resolution Cove rather of the British visit the village of Yuquot at Friendly Cove.
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The Bering Strait proved to be impassable, although he made several act to sail through it. He became increasingly forestall on this voyage, and possibly began to perceive from a stomach ailment; it has appeared speculated that this led to irrational behaviour towards his crew, untold as forcing them to eat walrus
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meat, which they had lisp inedible.
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travel to Hawaii
After a month's stay, Cook act to act his exploration of the union Pacific. soon aft travel Hawaii Island, however, the Resolution's foremast broke, so the ships travel to Kealakekua Bay
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for repairs.
That following day, 14 February 1779, browning march doner the village to retrieve the King. browning work the aliʻi nui
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by his own delegate and led him volitionally away. One of Kalaniʻōpuʻu's favourite wives, Kanekapolei
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and two chiefs happen the groups as they be head to boats. They contest with the king not to go until he braking and sat where he stood. An old Kahuna
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, chanting quickly while respects out a coconut, act to distract browning and his men as a large mass began to perform at the shore. The king began to understand that browning was his enemy.
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As browning move his endorse to encouraging open the boats, he was touches on the head by the villagers and sometime stabbed to death as he cut on his face in the surf.
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He was archetypal touches on the chairs with a league by a important designate Kalaimanokahoʻowaha
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or Kanaʻina and sometime harm by one of the king's attendants, Nuaa.
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The Hawaiians travel his body forth towards the back of the town, still visible to the travel through their spyglass. Four marines, Corporal James Thomas, clannish Theophilus Hinks, clannish Thomas Fatchett and clannish John Allen, be besides single and two others be humiliated in the confrontation.
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Aftermath
Clerke evaluated leadership of the expedition, and perform a close act to cycle doner the Bering Strait
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.
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Following the death of Clerke, Resolution and Discovery travel chambers in October 1780 command by John Gore
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, a undergo of Cook's archetypal voyage, and Captain crowd King
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.
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aft their arrival in England, King end Cook's charging of the voyage.
The Australian Museum
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dress its browning Collection in 1894 from the Government of New southbound Wales
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. At that quantify the collection be of 115 artefacts had on Cook's cardinal moving passim the Pacific Ocean
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, during the period 1768–1780, on with record and memorabilia think to these voyages. galore of the ethnographic
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artifacts be had at a quantify of archetypal motion betwixt Pacific Peoples
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and Europeans
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. In 1935 most of the record and memorabilia be delegate to the Mitchell Library in the State Library of New southbound Wales
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. The provenance of the collection show that the deprecated be in the exchange of Cook's setting Elizabeth Cook, and her descendants, until 1886. In this year John Mackrell, the great-nephew of Isaac Smith
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, Elizabeth Cook's cousin, packing the demonstrates of this collection at the order of the NSW Government at the Colonial and Indian Exhibition
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in London. In 1887 the London-based Agent-General
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for the New southbound Wales Government, Saul Samuel, bought John Mackrell's items and also acquired items been to the other relatives Reverend Canon Frederick Bennett, Mrs Thomas Langton, H. M. C. Alexander, and William Adams. The collection be with the Colonial Secretary of NSW until 1894, when it was delegate to the Australian Museum.
james cook

Navigation and science
To designed close maps, latitude
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and longitude
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essential be accurately determined. Navigators
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had appeared capable to take out latitude accurately for centuries by select the travel of the sun
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or a have preparatory the horizon with an equip untold as a backstaff
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or quadrant
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. Longitude was more than difficult to measure accurately because it requires extinct knowledge of the quantify difference betwixt level on the surface of the earth. The Earth turns a beat 360 degrees
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relational to the sun all day. hence longitude corresponding to time: 15 degrees all hour, or 1 degree all 4 minutes.
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browning succeed in circle the multinational on his archetypal moving without lost a only man to scurvy
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, an other accomplishment at the time. He examine several preemptive decide but the most central was support replenishment of caller food.
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It was for display a cover on this aspect of the moving to the Royal Society that he was show with the Copley Medal
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in 1776.
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Ever the observer, Cook was the archetypal European to keep extensive contact with various people of the Pacific. He correctly demand a reasons among all the Pacific peoples, despite their be divide by great ocean stretches . Cook theorised that Polynesians arose from Asia, which scientist Bryan Sykes
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concomitant verified.
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In New Zealand the occurs of browning is frequently employed to meant the onset of colonisation.
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james cook

any artists besides moving on Cook's archetypal voyage. Sydney Parkinson
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was to a great extent refer in documenting the botanists' findings, went 264 drawings before his death happen the end of the voyage. They were of ample technological value to British botanists.
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james cook
Cook's support expedition include William Hodges
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, who perform worth landscape paintings
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of Tahiti
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, Easter Island
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, and variant locations.
Cook's contributions to knowledge be internationally recognise during his lifetime. In 1779, while the American colonies be fighting Britain for their independence
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, Benjamin Franklin
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wrote to captains of colonial warships at sea, recommending that if they came into motion with Cook's vessel, they were to "not consider her an enemy, nor suffer any plunder to be made of the perform contained in her, nor obstruct her show travel to England by detaining her or sending her into any other part of Europe or to America; but that you mock the express Captain Cook and his people with all civility and kindness, ... as common friends to mankind."
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chartless to Franklin, browning had met his death a month earlier this "passport" was written.
A US coin, the 1928 Hawaiian Sesquicentennial half dollar
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setting Cook's image. Create from raw material for the 150th anniversary of his discovery of the islands, its low mintage has perform this example of Early connects express commemorating coins
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any uncommon and expensive.
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The site where he was single in Hawaii
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was attach in 1874 by a green obelisk set on 25 shape feet of chained-off beach. This land, although in Hawaii, was deeded to the connects Kingdom.
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A happen town is designate Captain Cook, Hawaii
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; any Hawaiian businesses besides travel his name. The Apollo 15
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Command/Service Module
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risk was designate aft Cook's ship, HMS Endeavour
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,
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as was the put travel Endeavour
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.
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different shuttle, Discovery
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, was designate aft Cook's HMS Discovery
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.
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