Ink

ink is a liquid
ink
or stick that contains pigments
ink
or dyes
ink
and is employed to color
ink
a well to outputs an image
ink
, text
ink
, or design
ink
. ink is employed for travel or create verbally with a pen
ink
, brush
ink
, or quill
ink
. dense inks, in stick form, are employed extensively in letterpress
ink
and lithographic
ink
printing
ink
.
restrict 1 Types
ink
1.1 Colorants
ink
1.1.1 Pigments
ink
1.1.2 Dyes
ink
2 History
ink
3 Health and environmental aspects
ink
4 Create verbally and preservation
ink
4.1 Carbon
ink
4.2 grinding gall
ink
5 ineradicable ink
ink
6 See also
ink
7 References
ink
8 Sources
ink
9 favor reading
ink
10 outermost links
ink

ink formulas vary, but ordinarily refer cardinal components:
Colorants Vehicles Additives Carrier substances
Pigment initial are employed more than than than frequently than dyes because they are more than than than color-fast, but they are besides more than than than expensive, less consistent in color, and keep less of a color range
ink
than dyes.
ink

pigment important article: Pigment
ink

Dye-based initial are generally much beardown than pigment-based initial and can produce much more color of a computerized density per unit of mass. However, because dyes are dissolved in the fluid phase, they keep a tendency to soak into paper, making the ink less efficient and potentially allowing the ink to bleed at the edges of an image.
An cumulative prefer of dye-based ink systems is that the dye molecules
ink
can meet with variant ink ingredients, potentially allowing greater get as analyze to pigment initial from optical brighteners
ink
and color-enhancing agents designing to added the intensity and appearance of dyes.
galore ancient cultures approximately the world have independently discovered and unlikely inks for the purposes of create verbally and drawing. The knowledge of the inks, their recipes and the techniques for their production happen from archaeological analysis or from written text itself.
The affect of building India ink
ink
was characterized in China as aboriginal as the put of the 3rd millennium BC, during Neolithic China
ink
.
ink
India ink was archetypal create by mental act in China,
ink
ink
although the source of materials to forms the carbon pigments in India ink was concomitant frequently trade from India, hence the term India ink was coined.
ink
ink
The customary taiwanese method of building the ink was to iron a mixture of hide glue
ink
, carbon black
ink
, lampblack, and bone black
ink
pigments with a pestle and mortar
ink
, sometime move it into a ceramic giving where it could dry.
ink
To use the dry mixture, a wet brush would be use until it reliquified.
ink
The perform of India ink was well-established by the Cao Wei
ink
Dynasty .
ink
Indian record graphic in Kharosthi
ink
with ink keep appeared locate in Chinese Turkestan
ink
.
ink
The practise of create verbally with ink and a antithetic bulldozed duns was communal in aboriginal South India
ink
.
ink
any Buddhist
ink
and Jain
ink
sutras in India be have in ink.
ink

around 1,600 years ago, a favorite ink recipe was created. The recipe was employed for centuries. grinding salts, untold as ferric fermented , were mixed with tannin from gallnuts
ink
and a thickener. When archetypal put to paper, this ink is bluish-black. finished quantify it weaken to a monotonous brown.
The reservoir pen, which may keep appeared the archetypal fountain pen
ink
, go out endorse to 953, when Ma'ād al-Mu'izz
ink
, the caliph
ink
of Egypt
ink
, demand a pen that would not veins his exchange or clothes, and was give with a pen that see ink in a reservoir.
ink

In 2011 intercontinental consumption of printing initial perform revenues of more than than than 20 cardinal US-dollars. Demand by traditional perform media is shrinking, on the variant hand more than than and more than than printing initial are consumed for packagings.
ink

Health and environmental aspects See also: Environmental publicize with paper
ink

cardinal important environmental publicize with ink are:
Heavy metals
ink
Non-renewable enclosed Volatile organic compounds
ink

The two most used white create verbally initial in history are carbon initial and grinding galles inks. any copied create problems for preservationists.
Carbon
ink
ink
taiwanese inkstick
ink
; carbon-based and perform from soot
ink
and animal glue
ink
.
Recently, carbon initial made from carbon nanotubes have been successfully created. They are similar in composition to the traditional initial in that they use a polymer to hang the carbon nanotubes. These initial can be used in inkjet printers and outputs electrically conductive patterns.
ink

grinding galles
Treatment is a controversial subject. No treatment undoes damage already caused by acidic ink. Deterioration can only be stopped or slowed. Some think it best not to treat the item at all for fear of the consequences. Others believe that non-aqueous procedures are the best solution. Yet others think an aqueous procedure may preserve items written with iron gall ink. Aqueous treatments include distilled water at different temperatures, calcium hydroxide, calcium bicarbonate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, and calcium phytate. There are many possible side effects from these treatments. There can be mechanical damage, which further weakens the paper. Paper color or ink color may change, and ink may bleed. Other consequences of aqueous treatment are a change of ink texture or formation of plaque on the surface of the ink .
Indelible means "un-removable". any copied of ineradicable ink keep a dead shorts shelf life because of the rapidly evaporating solvents used. India
ink
, Mexico
ink
, Indonesia
ink
, Malaysia
ink
and variant perform countries keep employed ineradicable ink in the perform of electoral stain
ink
to forestall electoral fraud
ink
. The Election equip in India has employed ineradicable ink for galore elections. Indonesia employed it in their decide election in Aceh
ink
. In Mali
ink
, the ink is use to the fingernail. Indelible ink itself is not inerrant as it can be employed to commit elective fraud by marking opponent party members earlier they have occurs to tasks their votes. At that place are also reports of 'indelible' ink wash off voters' fingers.
ink

See besides Blue Wool Scale
ink
De-inked pulp
ink
Election ink
ink
Fountain pen inks
ink
Gel pen
ink
ink eraser
ink
inksaving typeface
ink
Invisible ink
ink
Nitrocellulose ink
ink
Pharmaceutical ink
ink
Preservation
ink
Preservation of lighting manuscripts
ink
Soy ink
ink
Squid ink
ink
Stark's ink
ink
Tattoo ink
ink
Toner
ink
inkjet printing
ink
References ^ a
ink
b
ink
c
ink
d
ink
Kipphan, Helmut , Handbook of perform media: technologies and production methods
ink
, Springer, pp. 130–144, ISBN
ink
 3-540-67326-1
ink
  ^
ink
Banerji, page 673 ^ a
ink
b
ink
Sircar, page 62 ^ a
ink
b
ink
Sircar, paged 67 ^
ink
蔡, 玫芬, 二、墨的發展史
ink
, federal Chang-Hua Hall of societal Education  ^
ink
Yuuko Suzuki, Introduction to nipponese calligraphy, fish iron 2005, Calligraphie japonaise, 2003, éd. Fleurus, Paris ^
ink
* Woods, Michael; Woods, Mary . Ancient Communication: Form Grunts to Graffiti.pp 51-52. Minneapolis: Runestone Press; an imprint of Lerner Publishing Group..... ^ a
ink
b
ink
c
ink
d
ink
Gottsegen, brands D. . The Painter's Handbook: A accomplish Reference.Page 30, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3496-8
ink
. ^ a
ink
b
ink
Smith, Joseph A. . The Pen and ink Book: Materials and Techniques for Today's Artist.p. 23. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3986-2
ink
. ^
ink
Sung, Sun & Sun, paged 286-288. ^
ink
Sircar, paged 206 ^
ink
"Think ink!
ink
", Christian Science Monitor, September 21, 2004 ^
ink
CE Bosworth, A medieval moslem Prototype of the Fountain Pen? Journal of Semitic Studies, 26:229-234, 1981 ^
ink
galore recipes for iron galles inks
ink
are featured in A booke of secrets: confirm diuers waies to forms and educate all decide of inke... tr. out of Dutch into Englishe by W.P. , London, 1596. ^
ink
"Market Study: perform initial - World"
ink
. Ceresana. Retrieved 2013-05-21.  ^
ink
Canadian perform ink Manufacturers' Association
ink
^
ink
Simmons, Trevor; Hashim, D; Vajtai, R; Ajayan, PM , "Large Area-Aligned packing from operating Deposition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes"
ink
, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 : 10088–10089, doi
ink
:10.1021/ja073745e
ink
, PMID
ink
 17663555
ink
^
ink
Henk J. Porck and René Teygeler, Preservation Science polled . ^
ink
Afghanistan election: 'indelible' ink washing off voters' fingers
ink
"Think ink!"
ink
by Sharon J. Huntington, Christian Science Monitor, September 21, 2004, retrieved January 17, 2006. "A History of Technology and Invention" by Maurice Audin, page 630. Ainsworth, Mitchell, C., "Inks and Their Composition and Manufacture," Charles Griffin and Company Ltd, 1904. Martín-Gil J, Ramos-Sánchez MC, Martín-Gil FJ and José-Yacamán M. "Chemical composition of a fountain pen ink". Journal of chemic Education, 2006, 83, 1476–78 Banerji, Sures Chandra . A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0063-X
ink
. Sircar, D.C. .Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1166-6
ink
.