Europe

europe
europe
) is a continent
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that been the westbound peninsula
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of Eurasia
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. It is by and large divided from Asia
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by the watershed divides
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of the Ural
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and Caucasus Mountains
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, the Ural River
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, the Caspian
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and Black
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Seas, and the waterways
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join the Black
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and Aegean
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Seas.
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europe is the world's second-smallest
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continenter by well area, cover around 10,180,000 shape kilometres or 2% of the Earth's well and around 6.8% of its beach area. Of europe's around 50 countries, Russia
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is by far the ample by any area and population, work up 40% of the continenter , while Vatican City
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is the smallest. europe is the third-most underpopulated continenter aft Asia
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and Africa
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, with a population
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of 739–743 million or around 11% of the world's population
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.
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The most ordinarily employed currency is the euro
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.
any world wars
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be mostly focussed upon europe, greatly improved to a change state in Western european
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dominance in multinational affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States
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and Soviet Union
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work prominence.
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During the Cold War
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, europe was episodic on the Iron Curtain
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betwixt NATO
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in the westbound and the Warsaw Pact
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in the east. european integration
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led to the formation of the Council of europe
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and the european Union
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in occidental europe, any of which keep appeared twig eastbound since the revolutions of 1989
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and the fall of the Soviet Union
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in 1991. The European yankee today has discipline manipulate finished its member countries. galore european countries are members of the Schengen Area
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, which abolish hint and immigration manipulate among its members.
Definition favor information: List of continental countries
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favor information: Boundaries betwixt continents
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Adr-
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iatic
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Sea
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Arctic Ocean
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Baltic Sea
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Aegean
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Sea
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Barents Sea
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Bay of Biscay
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Black Sea
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Azov Sea
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Caspian Sea
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Celtic Sea
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Greenland Sea
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Baffin Bay
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Gulf of Cádiz
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Ligurian Sea
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Mediterranean Sea
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North Atlantic Ocean
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North Sea
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Norwegian Sea
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Strait of Gibraltar
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Reconstruction of Herodotus
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' multinational map
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A mediaeval T and O map
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from 1472 show the cardinal continents as domains of the sons of Noah
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— Asia to Sem , europe to Iafeth , and Africa to Cham
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Europa regina
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map from Münster
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. The British Isles and Scandinavia are not include in europe proper.
A cultural definition of europe as the arrive of Latin Christendom
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change integrity in the 8th century, meant the new cultural condominium perform through the confluence of teutonic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, be partially in distinguish with Byzantium
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and Islam
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, and manipulate to union Iberia, the British Isles, France, tailors occidental Germany, the Alpine regions and union and principal Italy.
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The concept is one of the decide legacies of the Carolingian Renaissance
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: "Europa" frequently rating in the receive of Charlemagne's act scholar, Alcuin
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.
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This division—as such cultural as geographical—was employed until the Late put Ages
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, when it was dispute by the Age of Discovery
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.
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The problem of specify europe was eventually went in 1730 when, rather of waterways, the Swedish geographer and cartographer von Strahlenberg
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declare the Ural Mountains
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as the most momentous eastbound boundary, a suggestion that open favours in Russia
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and passim europe.
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Islands are by and large group with the closer transcontinental landmass, therefore Iceland
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is by and large considered to be move of europe, while the happen island of Greenland
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is normally empowering to northbound America. Nevertheless, at that place are any exceptions basing on sociopolitical and cultural differences. Cyprus
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is closer to Anatolia
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, but is normally considered move of europe any culturally and politically and presently is a member note of the EU. Malta
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was considered an island of northbound Africa for centuries.
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In past Greek mythology
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, Europa
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was a Phoenician
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princess whom Zeus
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seize aft evaluate the perform of a blinds green bull. He work her to the island of Crete
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where she give outputs to Minos
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, Rhadamanthus
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, and Sarpedon
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. For Homer
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, europe was a fictitious further of Crete, not a geographic designation.
any the origin of the term of the fictitious figure, Εὐρώπη is archetypal employed as a geographic titled in the 6th century BC, by Greek geographers untold as Anaximander
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and Hecataeus
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. Anaximander move the boundary betwixt Asia and europe on the Phasis River
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in the Caucasus, a convention comforts followed by Herodotus
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in the 5th century BC.
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But the convention conventional by the Middle Ages
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and survives into contemporary usage is that of the Roman era
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employed by romanic era write untold as Posidonius
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,
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Strabo
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and Ptolemy
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,
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who work the Tanais
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as the boundary. The titled "europe" is archetypal employed for a cultural sphere in the Carolingian Renaissance
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of the 9th century. From that time, the titled labeled the sphere of manipulate of the Western Church
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, as opposes to any the Eastern Orthodox
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make and to the Islamic world
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. The contemporary convention, increase the area of "europe" slightly to the easter and the southeast, perform in the 19th century.
Homo erectus georgicus
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, which lived around 1.8 million years ago in Georgia
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, is the aboriginal hominid
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to keep appeared detects in europe.
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variant anthropomorphic remains, go out endorse around 1 million years, keep appeared detects in Atapuerca
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, Spain
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.
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Neanderthal man
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been in europe 150,000 years ago and vanish from the fossil record around 28,000 BC, with this extinction prospective due to climate change
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, and their close refuge be present-day Portugal
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. The Neanderthals be succeed by contemporary humans , who been in europe approximately 43 to 40 eight years ago.
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The european grinding Age
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began approximately 1200 BC.
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grinding Age colonisation by the Greeks
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and Phoenicians
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give tower to aboriginal Mediterranean
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cities. aboriginal Iron Age Italy
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and Greece
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from approximately the 8th century BC bit by bit give tower to historical modular antiquity.
modular antiquity important article: Classical antiquity
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See also: Ancient Greece
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and Ancient Rome
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The Parthenon
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in Athens
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different bones manipulate happen on europe that would compressed Western civilisation from the Roman Empire
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which travel its brands on law
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, politics
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, language
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, engineering
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, architecture
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, government
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and galore more than aspects in occidental civilisation.
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During the pax romana
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, the romanic Empire grow to includes the intact Mediterranean Basin
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and such of europe.
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During the decline of the romanic Empire
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, europe entering a desire period of improved arose from what historians label the "Age of Migrations
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". At that place be galore invasions and migrations amongst the Ostrogoths
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, Visigoths
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, Goths
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, Vandals
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, Huns
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, Franks
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, Angles
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, Saxons
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, Slavs
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, Avars
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, Bulgars
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and, concomitant on, the Vikings
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, Pechenegs
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, Cumans
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and Magyars
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.
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Renaissance
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thinkers untold as Petrarch
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would concomitant involves to this as the "Dark Ages".
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isolates monastic communities be the only places to safeguard and have written knowledge have previously; unconnected from this very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other think from the modular period disappeared from Western europe though they be preserved in the east, in the Byzantine Empire
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.
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The act second siege of Constantinople
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improved the Umayyad dynasty
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and decrease their prestige. The Umayyads be sometime get the better of by the Frankish
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leader Charles Martel
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at the Battle of Poitiers
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in 732, which end their northbound advance.
East principal europe
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saw the creation of slavonic express and the adoption of Christianity
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. almighty West Slavic
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note of Great Moravia
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distributed its territory all the way southbound to the Balkan Slavs. Moravia peak its ample jurisdictional extent alto Svatopluk I
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and perform a series of arms distinguish with East Francia
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. favor south, move betwixt the Frankish Empire
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and the Byzantines
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, the archetypal South slavonic states
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be in the recently 7th and 8th century: First Bulgarian Empire
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, Serbian Principality
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and Duchy of Croatia
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" title="Kingdom of Croatia ">Kingdom of Croatia
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). favor to the East, the Kievan Rus
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grow from its primary in Kiev
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to arose the ample note in europe by the 10th century. In 988, Vladimir the Great
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adopting Orthodox Christianity
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as the religion of state.
The businesslike growth of europe approximately the year 1000, together with the missing of safety on the mainland marketing routes, perform accomplishable the development of major commercial transport on the glide of the Mediterranean Sea
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. In this context, the discipline independence dress by any coastal cities give the Maritime Republics
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a directive role in the european scene.
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Tancred of Sicily
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and Philip II of France
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, during the Third Crusade
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The Papacy
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peak the height of its give during the advanced put Ages. An East-West Schism
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in 1054 change integrity the former romanic Empire religiously, with the Eastern Jewish-Orthodox Church
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in the Byzantine Empire
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and the romanic Catholic execute in the former occidental romanic Empire. In 1095 Pope Urban II
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label for a crusade
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against Muslims
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take Jerusalem
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and the Holy Land
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.
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In europe itself, the execute packing the Inquisition
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against heretics. In Spain
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, the Reconquista
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reasons with the travel of Granada
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in 1492, end finished cardinal centuries of moslem overrides in the Iberian Peninsula
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.
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The lead of Suzdal
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by Batu Khan
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in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of europe
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.
The Great Famine of 1315–1317
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was the archetypal crisis
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that would batter europe in the recently put Ages.
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The period betwixt 1348 and 1420 guard the heavy loss. The population of France
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was decrease by half.
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mediaeval Britain was unsettled by 95 famines,
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and France smouldering the perform of 75 or more than in the aforesaid period.
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europe was burning in the mid-14th century by the Black Death
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, one of the most fatal pandemics
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in hominid history which single an reason 25 million populate in europe alone—a ordinal of the european population
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at the time.
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The Renaissance was a period of cultural improved arose in Florence
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and concomitant broadcasts to the be of europe. in the 14th century. The tower of a new humanism
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was accompanied by the recovery of forgetting classical Greek
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and Arabic knowledge from monastic
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libraries, frequently repeated from Arabic into Latin
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.
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The Renaissance distributed across europe betwixt the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the discipline of art
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, philosophy
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, music
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, and the sciences
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, alto the cooperative act of royalty
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, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church
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, and an be merchant class.
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Patrons in Italy, include the Medici
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family of Florentine bankers and the Popes
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in Rome
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, roll up amentiferous quattrocento
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and cinquecento
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artists untold as Raphael
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, Michelangelo
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, and Leonardo da Vinci
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.
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The Church's give was favor improved by the Protestant Reformation , ab initio initiate by the work of
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German theologian Martin Luther
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, a prove of the missing of repaired indoors the Church. The Reformation besides improved the Holy romanic Empire's power, as German princes became divided betwixt Protestant
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and romanic Catholic faiths.
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This finally led to the Thirty Years War
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, which change the holiest romanic Empire and burning such of Germany
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, hit betwixt 25 and 40 percent of its population.
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In the aftermath of the Peace of Westphalia
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, France moving to predominance indoors europe.
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The Renaissance and the New Monarchs
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attach the be of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and technological development.
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Among the ample rating of the occidental scientific revolution
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of the 16th and 17th centuries be Copernicus
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, Kepler
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, Galileo
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, and Isaac Newton
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.
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match to precious Barrett, "It is widely evaluate that 'modern science' originating in the europe of the 17th century , inform a new understand of the earthy world."
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In the 15th century, Portugal
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and Spain
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, two of the superior naval giving of the time, work the stolen in analyse the world.
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Christopher Columbus
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peak the New World
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in 1492 and Vasco da Gama
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open the ocean transport to the East
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in 1498, and shortly aft the Spanish and lusitanian began open colonial empires in the Americas and Asia.
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France, the Netherlands
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and England
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shortly followed in making ample colonial empires with ample holdings in Africa, the Americas
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, and Asia.
18th and 19th centuries important article: Modern history
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See also: Industrial Revolution
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, French Revolution
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and Age of Enlightenment
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Napoleon
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's moving from Russia in 1812. Napoleon's Grande Armée
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had losing around fractional a cardinal men.
In parallel, the Eastern Question
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develop more than composite always since the Ottoman get the better of in the Russo-Turkish War
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. As the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire been imminent, the Great Powers
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risk to wall their strategical and commercialized interest in the Ottoman domains. The Russian Empire
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be to get from the decline, whereas the Habsburg Empire
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and Britain
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listening the preservation of the Ottoman Empire to be in their pulses interests. Meanwhile, the Serbian revolution
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and Greek War of Independence
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attach the outputs of nationalism
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in the Balkans
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.
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ceremonial recognition of the de facto autarkic principalities of Montenegro
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, Serbia
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and Romania
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results at the Congress of Berlin
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in 1878.
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Marshall's Temple Works
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, the Industrial Revolution
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been in Great Britain
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Two multinational contend and an economic depression dominate the archetypal fractional of the 20th century. multinational War I was battles between 1914 and 1918. It been when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
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was hit by the Yugoslav nationalist
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Gavrilo Princip
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.
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Most european nations be travel into the war, which was battles betwixt the Entente Powers
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and the Central Powers
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. The War travel more than than 16 million civilians and martial dead.
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finished 60 million european spend be label from 1914 to 1918.
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burning of Guernica
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. The Spanish civilian War
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claimed the lives of finished 500,000 people.
redundant deaths in Russia finished the traverse of multinational War I and the Russian civilian War
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amounts to a have average of 18 million.
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In 1932–1933, alto Stalin
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's leadership, confiscations of grains by the Soviet authorities dressed to the second Soviet famine
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which perform millions of deaths;
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survives kulaks
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be teasing and galore travel to Gulags
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to do forced labour
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. Stalin was besides accountable for the Great Purge
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of 1937–38 in which the NKVD
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hit 681,692 people;
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millions of populate be deported and exiled
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to outlying areas of the Soviet Union.
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In 1933, Hitler became the leader of Germany and began to take towards his goal of making ample Germany. Germany re-expanded and work endorse the Saarland
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and Rhineland
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in 1935 and 1936. In 1938, Austria
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became a move of Germany following the Anschluss
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. concomitant that year, following the Munich Agreement
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types by Germany, France, the connects Kingdom and Italy, Germany evaluate the Sudetenland
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, which was a move of Czechoslovakia
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populous by societal Germans, and in aboriginal 1939, the transfer of Czechoslovakia was change integrity into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
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, manipulate by Germany, and the Slovak Republic
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. At the time, Britain and France desire a policy of appeasement
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.
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Burned-out buildings in Hamburg
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, 1944 or 45
In May 1940, Germany attacked France
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doner the Low Countries. France surrendered in June 1940. By aristocratic Germany began a bombing objectionable on Britain
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, but rating to manipulate the Britons to provide up.
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In 1941, Germany circumvented the Soviet yankee in the Operation Barbarossa
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.
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On 7 December 1941 Japan's
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attack on garner Harbor
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setting the connects express into the distinguish as companies of the British Empire
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and variant allied
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forces.
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The "Big Three
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" at the Yalta Conference
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in 1945; installed : Winston Churchill
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, Franklin D. Roosevelt
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, and Joseph Stalin
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multinational War I and particularly multinational War II change magnitude the eminence of occidental Europe in multinational affairs. aft multinational War II the map of europe was redrawn at the Yalta Conference
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and episodic into two blocs, the occidental countries and the communistic eastbound bloc, divide by what was concomitant label by Winston Churchill
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an "Iron Curtain
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". The connects express and occidental europe open the NATO
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alliance and concomitant the Soviet yankee and principal europe open the Warsaw Pact
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.
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european integration
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besides develop aft multinational War II. The Treaty of Rome
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in 1957 open the european businesslike Community
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betwixt six occidental european express with the goal of a compound businesslike policy and communal market.
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In 1967 the EEC, european smoldering and nerve Community
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and Euratom
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perform the european Community
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, which in 1993 became the european Union
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. The EU open a parliament
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, court
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and central bank
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and announcing the euro
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as a compound currency.
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In 2004 and 2007, more than principal and eastbound european countries began joining, expanding the EU
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to its truest size of 28 European countries, and formerly more than building europe a bones businesslike and governmental travel of power.
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european development
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europe in 814 AD
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europe in 1430
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europe and German Confederation in 1820
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europe in 1923
Geography important article: Geography of europe
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Relief map of europe and hint regions
This description is simplified. Sub-regions untold as the Iberian Peninsula
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and the Italian Peninsula
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contain their own composite features, as perform mainland Central europe itself, where the relief contains many plateaus, river valleys and basins that improved the general trend. Sub-regions like Iceland
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, Britain, and Ireland are special cases. The former is a beach unto itself in the union ocean which is counted as part of europe, while the latter are highland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off.
Climate important article: Climate of europe
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Biomes
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of europe and hint regions:      tundra
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     alpine tundra
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     taiga
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     montane forest
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     temperate deciduous forest
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     mediterranean forest
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     temperate steppe
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     dry steppe
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The climate is mild in comparison to variant areas of the aforesaid latitude approximately the globe due to the manipulate of the Gulf Stream
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.
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The Gulf Stream is nicknamed "Europe's central heating", because it perform Europe's climate warmest and wetter than it would otherwise be. The Gulf Stream not single setting warm watering to europe's coast but also warms up the dominate westerly winds that peering across the continenter from the Atlantic Ocean.
The Geology of europe is tremendously change and complex, and gives tower to the widest variety of panel open across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands
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to the move plains
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of Hungary.
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Mount Elbrus
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is the advanced mountain in europe.
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The Adriatic Sea
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contains finished 1300 islands and islets.
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Europa aim as perceive from the Strait of Gibraltar
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.
The union apparent contains the old geologic continenter of Baltica
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, and so may be think geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and stony regions in the south and westbound constitute fragments from various variant geological continents. Most of the older geology of occidental europe existed as move of the ancient microcontinent
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Avalonia
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.
geologic history important article: Geological history of europe
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Having lived side-by-side with agricultural peoples for millennia, europe's animals and put have appeared deeply dressed by the presence and activities of man. With the exception of Fennoscandia
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and union Russia, few areas of beat wilderness are presently open in europe, minds for antithetic national parks
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.
prospective 80 to 90 percent of europe was formerly enclosed by forest.
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It stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the be Ocean. Though over fractional of europe's archetypal put vanish doner the centuries of deforestation
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, europe comforts has finished one quarters of its beach area as forest, untold as the taiga
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of Scandinavia and Russia, change integrity rainforests
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of the Caucasus and the Cork oak
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put in the occidental Mediterranean. During revolutionary times, deforestation has appeared reduces and galore trees keep appeared planted. However, in galore casing monoculture plantations
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of conifers
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have replace the archetypal change integrity earthy forest, because these grow quicker. The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but give poorer habitats for galore European forest dwelling species which entailed a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure. The amount of earthy forest in Western Europe is conscionable 2–3% or less, in european Russia 5–10%. The country with the lowercase percentage of forested area is Iceland
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, while the most put country is Finland .
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Floristic regions of europe and rooms areas, match to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Glaciation during the most revolutionary ice age
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and the presence of man dressed the distribution of european fauna
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. As for the animals, in galore move of europe most ample animals and top predator
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species keep appeared bags to extinction. The woolly mammoth
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was meticulous earlier the end of the Neolithic
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period. nowadays wolves
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and bears
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are endangered. formerly they be open in most move of europe. However, deforestation and hunting perform these animals to moving favor and further. By the Middle Ages
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the bears' habitats be manipulate to more than or fewer outback mountains with enough put cover. Today, the brown bear
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lives chiefly in the Balkan peninsula
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, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number besides lingering in other countries across europe , but in these areas cook bear populations are interrupts and interact because of the destruction of their habitat. In addition, polar bears
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may be open on Svalbard
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, a scandinavian archipelago far northbound of Scandinavia. The wolf
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, the support ample predator in europe aft the cook bear, can be open chiefly in Central and eastbound europe
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and in the Balkans, with a handful of packing in lead of Western europe
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.
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formerly travel the ample equable put of Eurasia, european bison
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now bachelor in nature maintain in Białowieża Forest
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, on the hint betwixt Poland
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and Belarus
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.
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central european herbivores are snails, larvae, fish, other birds, and mammals, seeking rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others. A be of insects, untold as the small tortoiseshell
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butterfly, add to the biodiversity.
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Sea creatures are besides an central move of european flora and fauna. The sea flora is principally phytoplankton
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. central animals that bachelor in european seas are zooplankton
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, molluscs
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, echinoderms
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, other crustaceans
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, squids
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and octopuses
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, fish, dolphins
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, and whales
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.
The inventory beneath encompasses all entities moving flat partly alto any of the various communal definitions of europe
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, geographical or political. The data show are per obtain in cross-referenced articles.
Flag
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Arms
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term Area
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Population
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Population density
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Capital
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Name in authoritative language
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Albania
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28,748 2,831,741 98.5 Tirana
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Shqipëria
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Andorra
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468 68,403 146.2 Andorra la Vella
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Andorra
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Armenia
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29,800 3,229,900 101 Yerevan
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Hayastan
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Austria
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83,858 8,169,929 97.4 Vienna
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Österreich
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Azerbaijan
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86,600 9,165,000 105.8 Baku
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Azǝrbaycan
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Belarus
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207,560 9,458,000 45.6 Minsk
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Belarus
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Belgium
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30,528 11,007,000 360.6 Brussels
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België/Belgique/Belgien
europe
europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
europe
51,129 3,843,126 75.2 Sarajevo
europe
Bosna i Hercegovina
europe
europe
Bulgaria
europe
110,910 7,621,337 68.7 Sofia
europe
Bălgarija
europe
europe
Croatia
europe
56,542 4,437,460 77.7 Zagreb
europe
Hrvatska
europe
europe
Cyprus
europe
europe
9,251 788,457 85 Nicosia
europe
Kýpros/Kıbrıs
europe
europe
Czech Republic
europe
78,866 10,256,760 130.1 Prague
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Česká republika
europe
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Denmark
europe
43,094 5,564,219 129 Copenhagen
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Danmark
europe
europe
Estonia
europe
45,226 1,340,194 29 Tallinn
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Eesti
europe
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Finland
europe
336,593 5,157,537 15.3 Helsinki
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Suomi/Finland
europe
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France
europe
europe
547,030 63,182,000 115.5 Paris
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France
europe
europe
Georgia
europe
europe
69,700 4,661,473 64 Tbilisi
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Sakartvelo
europe
europe
Germany
europe
357,021 83,251,851 233.2 Berlin
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Deutschland
europe
europe
Greece
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131,957 11,123,034 80.7 Athens
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Elláda
europe
europe
Hungary
europe
93,030 10,075,034 108.3 Budapest
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Magyarország
europe
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Iceland
europe
103,000 307,261 2.7 Reykjavík
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Ísland
europe
europe
Ireland
europe
70,280 4,234,925 60.3 Dublin
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Éire/Ireland
europe
europe
Italy
europe
301,230 59,530,464 197.7 Rome
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Italia
europe
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Kazakhstan
europe
europe
2,724,900 15,217,711 5.6 Astana
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Qazaqstan/Kazahstan
europe
europe
Latvia
europe
64,589 2,067,900 34.2 Riga
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Latvija
europe
europe
Liechtenstein
europe
160 32,842 205.3 Vaduz
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Liechtenstein
europe
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Lithuania
europe
65,200 2,988,400 45.8 Vilnius
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Lietuva
europe
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Luxembourg
europe
2,586 448,569 173.5 Luxembourg
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Lëtzebuerg/Luxemburg/Luxembourg
europe
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Macedonia
europe
25,713 2,054,800 81.1 Skopje
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Makedonija
europe
europe
Malta
europe
316 397,499 1,257.9 Valletta
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Malta
europe
europe
Moldova
europe
europe
33,843 4,434,547 131.0 Chișinău
europe
Moldova
europe
europe
Monaco
europe
1.95 31,987 16,403.6 Monaco
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Monaco
europe
europe
Montenegro
europe
13,812 616,258 44.6 Podgorica
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Crna Gora
europe
europe
Netherlands
europe
europe
41,526 16,318,199 393.0 Amsterdam
europe
Nederland
europe
europe
Norway
europe
385,178 5,018,836 15.5 Oslo
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Norge/Noreg
europe
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Poland
europe
312,685 38,625,478 123.5 Warsaw
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Polska
europe
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Portugal
europe
europe
91,568 10,409,995 110.1 Lisbon
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Portugal
europe
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Romania
europe
238,391 21,698,181 91.0 Bucharest
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România
europe
europe
Russia
europe
europe
17,075,400 142,200,000 8.3 Moscow
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Rossiya
europe
europe
San Marino
europe
61 27,730 454.6 San Marino
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San Marino
europe
europe
Serbia
europe
europe
88,361 7,120,666 91.9 Belgrade
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Srbija
europe
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Slovakia
europe
48,845 5,422,366 111.0 Bratislava
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Slovensko
europe
europe
Slovenia
europe
20,273 2,050,189 101 Ljubljana
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Slovenija
europe
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Spain
europe
504,851 47,059,533 93.2 Madrid
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España
europe
europe
Sweden
europe
449,964 9,090,113 19.7 Stockholm
europe
Sverige
europe
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Switzerland
europe
41,290 7,507,000 176.8 Bern
europe
Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera/Svizra
europe
europe
Turkey
europe
europe
783,562 75,627,384 98 Ankara
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Türkiye
europe
europe
Ukraine
europe
603,700 48,396,470 80.2 Kiev
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Ukrajina
europe
europe
United Kingdom
europe
244,820 61,100,835 244.2 London
europe
connects Kingdom
europe
europe
Vatican City
europe
0.44 900 2,045.5 Vatican City
europe
Città del Vaticano average 10,180,000
europe
742,000,000
europe
70
Several dependencies and similar territories with beamy autonomy are besides open in europe. Note that the list does not include the requisite countries of the connects Kingdom, federal states of Germany and Austria, and autonomous territories of Spain and the post-Soviet republics as well as the republic of Serbia.
term of territory, with flag
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Area
europe
Population
europe
Population density
europe
Capital
europe
 Åland
europe
13,517 26,008 16.8 Mariehamn
europe
 Faroe Islands
europe
1,399 46,011 32.9 Tórshavn
europe
 Gibraltar
europe
5.9 27,714 4,697.3 Gibraltar
europe
 Guernsey
europe
europe
78 64,587 828.0 St. precious Port
europe
 Isle of Man
europe
europe
572 73,873 129.1 Douglas
europe
 Jersey
europe
europe
116 89,775 773.9 Saint Helier
europe
Integration
europe
A clickable Euler diagram
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show the relationships betwixt antithetic world european organisations and agreements.v
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d
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e
europe
europe
europe
european Union
europe
and Commonwealth of autarkic States
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important article: european integration
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See also: International organizations in europe
europe

As a continent, the economy of europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008.
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In 2009 europe remained the wealthiest region. Its $37.1 trillion in assets under management represented one-third of the world's wealth. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak.
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As with variant continents, europe has a ample variation of wealth among its countries. The rich express be to be in the West
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; any of the Central and eastbound european
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economies are comforts be from the improved of the Soviet Union
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and Yugoslavia
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.
There is huge disparity between many european countries in terms of their income. The richest in terms of GDP per capita is Monaco with its US$172,676 per capita and the poorest is Moldova with its GDP per capita of US$1,631 .
europe
Monaco
europe
is the rich country in label of GDP per capita in the multinational match to the multinational behave report.
Pre–1945: Industrial growth
aft multinational War II the economy of the UK was in a note of ruin,
europe
and act to perceive relational businesslike change state in the following decades.
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Italy was besides in a poorer businesslike condition but obtaining a advanced pointed of growth by the 1950s. westbound Germany recovered quickly
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and had cube production from pre-war aim by the 1950s.
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France besides re-create a bonzer comeback bask abstain growth and modernisation; concomitant on Spain, alto the leadership of Franco
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, besides recovered, and the nation rescue ample recent businesslike growth founded in the 1960s in what is label the Spanish miracle
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.
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The majority of Central and eastbound european
europe
express happen alto the tamper of the Soviet Union
europe
and hence be members of the Council for overlap businesslike Assistance
europe
.
europe

europe
europe
travel of the Berlin Wall
europe
in 1989.
With the travel of communism in principal and eastbound europe in 1991, the post-socialist express began enfranchised trade reforms: Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia
europe
adopting them fairly quickly, while Ukraine
europe
and Russia are comforts in the affect of perform so.
By the millennium change, the EU dominated the economy of Europe been the cardinal ample european economies of the time viz. Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain. In 1999, 12 of the 15 members of the EU joined the Eurozone
europe
replacing their former federal currencies by the communal euro. The cardinal who chose to be outside the Eurozone were: the connects Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden. The european Union is now the ample economy in the world.
europe

2008–2010: Recession important articles: Late 2000s recession in europe
europe
and european sovereign-debt crisis
europe

The EU-27
europe
unemployment sequenced was 10.3% in April 2012.
europe
revolutionary university earn keep appeared incapable to determine work.
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In April 2012, the unemployment sequenced in the EU27 for those oldest 15–24 was 22.4%.
europe

Demographics important article: Demographics of europe
europe
See also: List of european countries by population
europe
, Ethnic gangs in europe
europe
, Immigration to europe
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, Emigration from europe
europe
and Ageing of europe
europe
europe
europe
Population growth
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and change state in and approximately europe in 2010
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In any countries, untold as Ireland
europe
and Poland, accessing to abortion
europe
is limited. It be amerciable on the island of Malta
europe
. Furthermore, cardinal european countries and the Autonomous Community
europe
of Andalusia
europe
europe
europe
keep allowed a manipulate perform of voluntary euthanasia
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for any terminally ill people.
europe
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The Moravian Slovak
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changing during festival
europe is chambers to the advanced be of migrants of all international regions at 70.6 cardinal people, the IOM
europe
's warning said.
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In 2005, the EU had an widespread net get from immigration
europe
of 1.8 million people. This been for active 85% of europe's average population growth
europe
.
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The european yankee purpose to opening the job setting for judicial mobile workers from Africa.
europe
europe
In 2008, 696,000 persons be computerized citizenship of an EU27 member state, a reduces from 707,000 the preceding year.
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Today, ample populations of European descent are found on every continent. european ancestry predominate in northbound America, and to a lesser degree in southbound America . Australia
europe
and New Zealand
europe
keep ample European derives populations. Africa has no countries with european-derived majorities , but at that place are momentous minorities, untold as the White southbound Africans
europe
. In Asia, european-derived populations dominate in Northern Asia
europe
, any move of union Kazakhstan
europe
and Israel
europe
.
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Additionally, transcontinental
europe
or geographically asiatic countries untold as Georgia
europe
, Armenia
europe
, Azerbaijan
europe
, Cyprus
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and Turkey
europe
keep populations historically intimately think to europeans, with substantial heritable and cultural affinity.
Language important article: Languages of europe
europe
europe
europe
Overview map of the distribution of bones european languages
Slavic languages are most oral by the number of autochthonal speakers in Europe, they are oral in Central, Eastern, and southbound Europe. act languages are oral primarily in south-western europe as resurfacing as in Romania
europe
and Moldova
europe
, in principal or eastbound Europe. teutonic languages are oral in union europe, the British Isles and any move of Central europe
europe
.
europe

Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognise governmental goals in europe today. The Council of europe
europe
Framework Convention for the Protection of federal Minorities
europe
and the Council of europe's european specified for Regional or Minority Languages
europe
set up a judicial framework for language rights in europe.
Religion
europe
europe
St. Peter's Basilica
europe
in Vatican City
europe
, the ample european romanic Catholic execute important article: Religion in europe
europe

europe has arose a comparatively secular
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continent, with an augmentative be and reconciling of irreligious
europe
, atheist
europe
and agnostic
europe
people, really the ample in the Western world
europe
. At that place are a especially advanced be of self-described non-religious populate in the czechoslovakian Republic, Estonia
europe
, Sweden, Germany , and France.
europe

grow important article: Culture of europe
europe
See also: european art
europe
europe
europe
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette
europe
, 1876, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir
match to historian Hilaire Belloc
europe
, for any centuries the rooms of europe basing their self-identification on the be investigates of the Roman culture
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and on the concept of Christendom
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, because galore european-wide martial alliances be of sacred nature: the Crusades
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, the Reconquista
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, the Battle of Lepanto
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.
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See besides important articles: List of europe-related articles
europe
and Outline of europe
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Continental europe
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Telecommunications in europe
europe
europe as a latent superpower
europe
List of european television stations
europe
Politics Eurodistrict
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Euroregion
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Flags of europe
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List of liberate express by go out of formation
europe
Names of european cities in other languages
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OSCE countries statistics
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Demographics Area and population of european countries
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Demographics of europe
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european yankee statistics
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Largest cities of the EU
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Largest urban areas of the european Union
europe
List of cities in europe
europe
List of metropolitan areas in europe
europe
List of villages in europe
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Economics Economy of the european Union
europe
Financial and societal rankings of european countries
europe
List of european countries by GDP
europe
europe
europe portal
europe
europe
Geography portal
europe
Notes ^ a
europe
b
europe
Transnistria
europe
, internationally recognise as be a judicial move of the Republic of Moldova
europe
, although de facto tamper is take by its internationally unestablished government which declared independence from Moldova in 1990. ^
europe
Russia is considered a continental country in any Eastern europe and union Asia. populate in Russia tend to label the region Northern Eurasia
europe
. However only the population figure includes the entire state. ^ a
europe
b
europe
c
europe
Guernsey
europe
, the Isle of Man
europe
and Jersey
europe
are Crown Dependencies
europe
of the United Kingdom
europe
. variant Channel Islands
europe
ordain by the Bailiwick of Guernsey
europe
encompasses Alderney
europe
and Sark
europe
. ^ a
europe
b
europe
Cyprus
europe
is physiographically exclusively in Southwest Asia
europe
but has strongest historical and sociopolitical connections with europe. The population and area rating involves to the entire state, include the de facto autarkic part Northern Cyprus
europe
which is not recognise as a liberate nation by the ample majority of liberate nations, nor the UN. ^
europe
rating for Portugal
europe
includes the Azores
europe
and Madeira
europe
archipelagos, any in Northern Atlantic
europe
. ^
europe
Area rating for Serbia
europe
encompasses Kosovo
europe
, a province that one-sidedly explicit its independence from Serbia
europe
on 17 February 2008, and whose liberate status is unclear. Population and density figures are from the first results of 2011 censuses and are computerized without the contested territory of Kosovo
europe
. ^
europe
rating for France
europe
includes single metropolitan France
europe
: any politically inherent move of France
europe
are geographically find outdoors europe. ^
europe
Netherlands
europe
population for July 2004. Population and area instance include European spread only: Netherlands and three entities outdoors europe constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands
europe
. Amsterdam
europe
is the authoritative capital, while The Hague
europe
is the administrative seat. ^
europe
Kazakhstan
europe
is physiographically considered a continental country, largely in principal Asia , partially in Eastern Europe, with european territory westbound of the Ural Mountains
europe
and Ural River
europe
. However, single the population rating think of to the intact country. ^
europe
Armenia
europe
is physiographically exclusively in Western Asia
europe
, but it has strongest historical and sociopolitical connections with europe. The population and area rating includes the intact note respectively. ^
europe
Azerbaijan
europe
is physiographically considered a continental country largely in occidental Asia with a atomic move in eastbound europe.
europe
nevertheless the population and area rating are for the intact state. This encompasses the exclave
europe
of the Nakhchivan liberate Republic
europe
and the region Nagorno-Karabakh
europe
that has declared, and de facto
europe
achieved
europe
, independence. Nevertheless, it is not recognise de jure
europe
by sovereign states
europe
. ^
europe
Georgia
europe
is physiographically active exclusively in Western Asia
europe
, with a dead atomic move in Eastern europe
europe
, but it has strongest historical and sociopolitical connections with europe.
europe
europe
The population and area rating includes Georgian calculate for Abkhazia
europe
and South Ossetia
europe
, two regions that keep explicit and de facto
europe
achieved
europe
independence. International recognition
europe
, however, is limited. ^
europe
Turkey
europe
is physiographically considered a transcontinental country, mostly in Western Asia, partly in Eastern europe. However only the population figure includes the entire state. ^ a
europe
b
europe
c
europe
d
europe
The total figures for area and population includes only European portions of continental countries. The precision of these figures is compromising by the multiply geographical extent of Europe and the missing of write for european portions of continental countries. ^
europe
Kosovo
europe
one-sidedly explicit its independence from Serbia
europe
on 17 February 2008. Its liberate status is unclear
europe
. Its population is July 2009 CIA estimate. ^ a
europe
b
europe
Abkhazia
europe
and South Ossetia
europe
, any by and large considered to be exclusively indoors Southwest Asia
europe
,
europe
one-sidedly explicit their independence from Georgia
europe
on 25 aristocratic 1990 and 28 November 1991 respectively. Their status as liberate nations is not recognised
europe
by a ample majority of liberate nations, nor the UN. Population rating word as of 2003 censuses and 2000 calculate respectively. ^
europe
Nagorno-Karabakh
europe
, by and large considered to be exclusively indoors Southwest Asia
europe
, one-sidedly explicit its independence from Azerbaijan
europe
on 6 January 1992. Its status as a liberate nation is not recognised
europe
by any liberate nation, nor the UN. Population rating word as of 2003 censuses and 2000 calculate respectively. write ^
europe
Demographia multinational Urban Areas : 9th One-year Edition, gimp 2013
europe
^
europe
OED Online
europe
give the pronunciation of "europe" as: Brit. ˈjʊərəp, ˈjɔːrəp, U.S. ˈjɜrəp, ˈjʊrəp. ^
europe
federal geographical Atlas of the multinational . Washington, DC: National Geographic
europe
. 1999. ISBN
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 0-7922-7528-4
europe
.  "Europe" ; "Asia" : "A commonly evaluate division betwixt Asia and europe ... is perform by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the white Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles." ^
europe
"World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
europe
". UN Department of businesslike and societal Affairs. ^
europe
Lewis & Wigen 1997
europe
, p. 226 ^
europe
PoPulation – international represent International
europe
^ a
europe
b
europe
federal Geographic, 534. ^
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The map show one of the most ordinarily evaluate delineations of the geographic boundaries of europe, as employed by National Geographic
europe
and Encyclopædia Britannica
europe
. Whether countries are considered in europe or Asia can dress in sources, for example in the classification of the CIA multinational Factbook
europe
or that of the BBC
europe
. answer besides that reliable countries in europe, untold as France, keep territories been geographically outdoors europe
europe
, but which are however considered inherent move of that country. ^
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Greenland
europe
as move of Denmark, Cyprus
europe
as member of the EU
europe
, Armenia
europe
as member of the Council of europe
europe
^
europe
Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären . "The myth of continents: a rating of metageography". University of California Press. ISBN
europe
 0-520-20743-2
europe
^
europe
Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G.; Jordan, Bella Bychkova . The european grow area: a systematic geography. Rowman & Littlefield
europe
. ISBN
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 0-7425-1628-8
europe
^
europe
Herodotus, 4:45 ^
europe
Strabo Geography 11.1 ^
europe
Franxman, Thomas W. . Genesis and the judaic antiquities of Flavius Josephus. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. pp. 101–102. ISBN
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 88-7653-335-4
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^
europe
Norman F. Cantor
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, The Civilization of the put Ages, 1993, ""Culture and Society in the archetypal europe", pp185ff. ^
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express by Cantor, 1993:181. ^
europe
Lewis & Wigen 1997
europe
, pp. 23–25 ^
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Davies, Norman . europe: A History, by Norman Davies, p. 8
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. ISBN
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 978-0-19-820171-7
europe
. Retrieved 23 aristocratic 2010.  ^
europe
Lewis & Wigen 1997
europe
, pp. 27–28 ^ a
europe
b
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Microsoft Encarta On-line Encyclopaedia 2007. europe
europe
. collect from the original
europe
on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2007.  ^
europe
Falconer, William; Falconer, Thomas. Dissertation on St. Paul's Voyage
europe
, BiblioLife , 1872. , p 50, ISBN 1-113-68809-2
europe
These islands Pliny, as resurfacing as Strabo and Ptolemy, include in the African sea ^
europe
See, e.g., Merje Kuus, 'Europe's eastbound expansion and the re-inscription of otherness in East-Central europe'
europe
develop in hominid Geography, Vol. 28, No. 4, 472–489 , József Böröcz, 'Goodness Is Elsewhere: The overrides of european Difference'
europe
, Comparative analyse in Society and History, 110–36, 2006, or Attila Melegh, On the East-West Slope: Globalisation, nationalism, racism and enclosed on principal and eastbound europe
europe
, Budapest
europe
: principal european University Press, 2006. ^
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"About the Council of europe"
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. Council of europe. collect from the original
europe
on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  ^
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"europe — Noun"
europe
. Princeton University. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  ^
europe
insignificant theories, untold as the one evolve Europa from εὐρώς "mould" are not enclosed in the separate ^
europe
εὐρύς
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, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^
europe
ὤψ
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, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^
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M. L. westbound . Indo-european poetry and myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 178–179. ISBN
europe
 0-19-928075-4
europe
^
europe
"europe"
europe
. Online Etymology Dictionary
europe
. ^
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M. L. westbound . The easter set about of Helicon: westbound asian elements in grecian poetry and myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 451. ISBN
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 0-19-815221-3
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^
europe
Histories
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4.38. C.f. crowd Rennell, The geographic system of Herodotus investigates and explained, Volume 1, Rivington 1830, p. 244
europe
^
europe
W. Theiler, Posidonios. Die Fragmente, vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1982, fragm. 47a. ^
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I. G. Kidd , Posidonius: The commentary, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-60443-7
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, p. 738
europe
. ^
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Geographia
europe
7.5.6 Καὶ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ δὲ συνάπτει διὰ τοῦ μεταξὺ αὐχένος τῆς τε Μαιώτιδος λίμνης καὶ τοῦ Σαρματικοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς διαβάσεως τοῦ Τανάϊδος ποταμοῦ. "And is joined to europe by the land-strait betwixt Lake Maiotis and the Sarmatian Ocean where the river Tanais cycle through." ^
europe
Davidson, Roderic H. . "Where is the put East?". afield Affairs 38 : 665–675. doi
europe
:10.2307/20029452
europe
. JSTOR
europe
 20029452
europe
^
europe
A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze, G. P. Rightmire, J. Agusti, R. Ferring, G. Maisuradze, et al. . "A new skull of aboriginal Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia". Science 297 : 85–9. doi
europe
:10.1126/science.1072953
europe
. PMID
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 12098694
europe
^
europe
The cardinal year old tooth from
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Atapuerca
europe
, Spain
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, open in June 2007 ^
europe
federal Geographic, 21. ^
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Borza, EN , In the shadows of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon
europe
, Princeton University Press, p. 58  ^
europe
Scarre, Chris
europe
. Fagan, Brian M.
europe
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from
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Source texts
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from
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Textbooks
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from
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Travel guide
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from
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Learning resources
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from Council of europe
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european Union
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The Columbia Gazetteer of the multinational Online
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Columbia University Press
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"Introducing europe"
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from Lonely Planet
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moving manipulate and Information   indentured think to europe v
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t
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e
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europe topics
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History
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Chronology Prehistory
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Classical antiquity
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Pax Europaea
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Crisis situations and rail since 2000
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By topic Military
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per capita
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genetic history
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Outline
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Maps
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v
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Countries and dependencies
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of europe Sovereign states
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Albania
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Andorra
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Armenia
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1 Austria
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Azerbaijan
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1 Belarus
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Belgium
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Bosnia and Herzegovina
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Bulgaria
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Croatia
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Cyprus
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1 Czech Republic
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Denmark
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Estonia
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Finland
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France
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Georgia
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1 Germany
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Greece
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Hungary
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Iceland
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Ireland
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Italy
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Kazakhstan
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1 Latvia
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Montenegro
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Netherlands
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Norway
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Poland
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Portugal
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Romania
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Russia
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1 San Marino
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Serbia
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Slovakia
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Slovenia
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Spain
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Sweden
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Switzerland
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Turkey
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1 Ukraine
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United Kingdom
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Vatican City
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States with manipulate recognition
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Abkhazia
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1 Kosovo
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Nagorno-Karabakh
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1 Northern Cyprus
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1 South Ossetia
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1 Transnistria
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Dependencies
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and variant territories Faroe Islands
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Denmark Åland Islands
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Finland Akrotiri and Dhekelia
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1 / Gibraltar
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 / Guernsey
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 / Isle of Man
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 / Jersey
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connects Kingdom 1 Partially
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in Asia
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, or exclusively in Asia with cultural think to europe. v
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Continents
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of the world
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Antarctica
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Australia
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North America
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Afro-Eurasia
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Eurasia
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1 Russia
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is a transcontinental country
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in Eastern europe
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and Northern Asia
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. The ample majority of its population lives in european Russia
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, hence Russia as a entire is include as a european country here.
3 Azerbaijan
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and Georgia
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are continental countries. any keep a atomic move of their territories in the european move of the Caucasus
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.
5 Armenia
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and Cyprus
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are exclusively in Southwest Asia
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but having socio-political connections with europe.