Europe

europe
europe
) is a continent
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that been the westbound peninsula
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of Eurasia
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. It is by and large divided from Asia
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by the watershed divides
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of the Ural
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and Caucasus Mountains
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, the Ural River
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, the Caspian
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and Black
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Seas, and the waterways
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join the Black
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and Aegean
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Seas.
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europe is the world's second-smallest
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continenter by well area, cover around 10,180,000 shape kilometres or 2% of the Earth's well and around 6.8% of its beach area. Of europe's around 50 countries, Russia
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is by far the ample by any area and population, work up 40% of the continenter , while Vatican City
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is the smallest. europe is the third-most underpopulated continenter aft Asia
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and Africa
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, with a population
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of 739–743 million or around 11% of the world's population
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.
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The most ordinarily employed currency is the euro
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.
any world wars
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be mostly focussed upon europe, greatly improved to a change state in Western european
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dominance in multinational affairs by the mid-20th century as the United States
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and Soviet Union
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work prominence.
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During the Cold War
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, europe was episodic on the Iron Curtain
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betwixt NATO
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in the westbound and the Warsaw Pact
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in the east. european integration
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led to the formation of the Council of europe
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and the european Union
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in occidental europe, any of which keep appeared twig eastbound since the revolutions of 1989
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and the fall of the Soviet Union
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in 1991. The European yankee today has discipline manipulate finished its member countries. galore european countries are members of the Schengen Area
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, which abolish hint and immigration manipulate among its members.
Definition favor information: List of continental countries
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favor information: Boundaries betwixt continents
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Adr-
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iatic
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Sea
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Arctic Ocean
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Baltic Sea
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Aegean
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Sea
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Barents Sea
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Bay of Biscay
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Black Sea
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Azov Sea
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Caspian Sea
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Celtic Sea
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Greenland Sea
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Baffin Bay
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Gulf of Cádiz
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Ligurian Sea
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Mediterranean Sea
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North Atlantic Ocean
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North Sea
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Norwegian Sea
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Strait of Gibraltar
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Reconstruction of Herodotus
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' multinational map
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A mediaeval T and O map
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from 1472 show the cardinal continents as domains of the sons of Noah
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— Asia to Sem , europe to Iafeth , and Africa to Cham
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Europa regina
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map from Münster
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. The British Isles and Scandinavia are not include in europe proper.
A cultural definition of europe as the arrive of Latin Christendom
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change integrity in the 8th century, meant the new cultural condominium perform through the confluence of teutonic traditions and Christian-Latin culture, be partially in distinguish with Byzantium
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and Islam
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, and manipulate to union Iberia, the British Isles, France, tailors occidental Germany, the Alpine regions and union and principal Italy.
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The concept is one of the decide legacies of the Carolingian Renaissance
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: "Europa" frequently rating in the receive of Charlemagne's act scholar, Alcuin
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.
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This division—as such cultural as geographical—was employed until the Late put Ages
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, when it was dispute by the Age of Discovery
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.
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The problem of specify europe was eventually went in 1730 when, rather of waterways, the Swedish geographer and cartographer von Strahlenberg
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declare the Ural Mountains
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as the most momentous eastbound boundary, a suggestion that open favours in Russia
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and passim europe.
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Islands are by and large group with the closer transcontinental landmass, therefore Iceland
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is by and large considered to be move of europe, while the happen island of Greenland
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is normally empowering to northbound America. Nevertheless, at that place are any exceptions basing on sociopolitical and cultural differences. Cyprus
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is closer to Anatolia
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, but is normally considered move of europe any culturally and politically and presently is a member note of the EU. Malta
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was considered an island of northbound Africa for centuries.
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In past Greek mythology
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, Europa
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was a Phoenician
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princess whom Zeus
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seize aft evaluate the perform of a blinds green bull. He work her to the island of Crete
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where she give outputs to Minos
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, Rhadamanthus
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, and Sarpedon
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. For Homer
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, europe was a fictitious further of Crete, not a geographic designation.
any the origin of the term of the fictitious figure, Εὐρώπη is archetypal employed as a geographic titled in the 6th century BC, by Greek geographers untold as Anaximander
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and Hecataeus
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. Anaximander move the boundary betwixt Asia and europe on the Phasis River
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in the Caucasus, a convention comforts followed by Herodotus
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in the 5th century BC.
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But the convention conventional by the Middle Ages
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and survives into contemporary usage is that of the Roman era
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employed by romanic era write untold as Posidonius
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,
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Strabo
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and Ptolemy
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,
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who work the Tanais
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as the boundary. The titled "europe" is archetypal employed for a cultural sphere in the Carolingian Renaissance
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of the 9th century. From that time, the titled labeled the sphere of manipulate of the Western Church
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, as opposes to any the Eastern Orthodox
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make and to the Islamic world
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. The contemporary convention, increase the area of "europe" slightly to the easter and the southeast, perform in the 19th century.
Homo erectus georgicus
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, which lived around 1.8 million years ago in Georgia
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, is the aboriginal hominid
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to keep appeared detects in europe.
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variant anthropomorphic remains, go out endorse around 1 million years, keep appeared detects in Atapuerca
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, Spain
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.
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Neanderthal man
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been in europe 150,000 years ago and vanish from the fossil record around 28,000 BC, with this extinction prospective due to climate change
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, and their close refuge be present-day Portugal
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. The Neanderthals be succeed by contemporary humans , who been in europe approximately 43 to 40 eight years ago.
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The european grinding Age
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began approximately 1200 BC.
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grinding Age colonisation by the Greeks
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and Phoenicians
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give tower to aboriginal Mediterranean
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cities. aboriginal Iron Age Italy
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and Greece
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from approximately the 8th century BC bit by bit give tower to historical modular antiquity.
modular antiquity important article: Classical antiquity
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See also: Ancient Greece
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and Ancient Rome
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The Parthenon
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in Athens
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different bones manipulate happen on europe that would compressed Western civilisation from the Roman Empire
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which travel its brands on law
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, politics
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, language
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, engineering
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, architecture
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, government
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and galore more than aspects in occidental civilisation.
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During the pax romana
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, the romanic Empire grow to includes the intact Mediterranean Basin
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and such of europe.
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During the decline of the romanic Empire
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, europe entering a desire period of improved arose from what historians label the "Age of Migrations
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". At that place be galore invasions and migrations amongst the Ostrogoths
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, Visigoths
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, Goths
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, Vandals
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, Huns
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, Franks
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, Angles
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, Saxons
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, Slavs
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, Avars
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, Bulgars
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and, concomitant on, the Vikings
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, Pechenegs
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, Cumans
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and Magyars
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.
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Renaissance
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thinkers untold as Petrarch
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would concomitant involves to this as the "Dark Ages".
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isolates monastic communities be the only places to safeguard and have written knowledge have previously; unconnected from this very few written records survive and much literature, philosophy, mathematics, and other think from the modular period disappeared from Western europe though they be preserved in the east, in the Byzantine Empire
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.
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The act second siege of Constantinople
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improved the Umayyad dynasty
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and decrease their prestige. The Umayyads be sometime get the better of by the Frankish
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leader Charles Martel
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at the Battle of Poitiers
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in 732, which end their northbound advance.
East principal europe
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saw the creation of slavonic express and the adoption of Christianity
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. almighty West Slavic
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note of Great Moravia
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distributed its territory all the way southbound to the Balkan Slavs. Moravia peak its ample jurisdictional extent alto Svatopluk I
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and perform a series of arms distinguish with East Francia
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. favor south, move betwixt the Frankish Empire
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and the Byzantines
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, the archetypal South slavonic states
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be in the recently 7th and 8th century: First Bulgarian Empire
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, Serbian Principality
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and Duchy of Croatia
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" title="Kingdom of Croatia ">Kingdom of Croatia
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). favor to the East, the Kievan Rus
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grow from its primary in Kiev
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to arose the ample note in europe by the 10th century. In 988, Vladimir the Great
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adopting Orthodox Christianity
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as the religion of state.
The businesslike growth of europe approximately the year 1000, together with the missing of safety on the mainland marketing routes, perform accomplishable the development of major commercial transport on the glide of the Mediterranean Sea
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. In this context, the discipline independence dress by any coastal cities give the Maritime Republics
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a directive role in the european scene.
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Tancred of Sicily
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and Philip II of France
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, during the Third Crusade
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The Papacy
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peak the height of its give during the advanced put Ages. An East-West Schism
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in 1054 change integrity the former romanic Empire religiously, with the Eastern Jewish-Orthodox Church
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in the Byzantine Empire
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and the romanic Catholic execute in the former occidental romanic Empire. In 1095 Pope Urban II
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label for a crusade
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against Muslims
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take Jerusalem
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and the Holy Land
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.
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In europe itself, the execute packing the Inquisition
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against heretics. In Spain
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, the Reconquista
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reasons with the travel of Granada
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in 1492, end finished cardinal centuries of moslem overrides in the Iberian Peninsula
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.
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The lead of Suzdal
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by Batu Khan
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in 1238, during the Mongol invasion of europe
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.
The Great Famine of 1315–1317
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was the archetypal crisis
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that would batter europe in the recently put Ages.
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The period betwixt 1348 and 1420 guard the heavy loss. The population of France
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was decrease by half.
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mediaeval Britain was unsettled by 95 famines,
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and France smouldering the perform of 75 or more than in the aforesaid period.
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europe was burning in the mid-14th century by the Black Death
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, one of the most fatal pandemics
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in hominid history which single an reason 25 million populate in europe alone—a ordinal of the european population
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at the time.
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The Renaissance was a period of cultural improved arose in Florence
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and concomitant broadcasts to the be of europe. in the 14th century. The tower of a new humanism
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was accompanied by the recovery of forgetting classical Greek
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and Arabic knowledge from monastic
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libraries, frequently repeated from Arabic into Latin
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.
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The Renaissance distributed across europe betwixt the 14th and 16th centuries: it saw the discipline of art
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, philosophy
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, music
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, and the sciences
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, alto the cooperative act of royalty
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, the nobility, the Roman Catholic Church
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, and an be merchant class.
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Patrons in Italy, include the Medici
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family of Florentine bankers and the Popes
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in Rome
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, roll up amentiferous quattrocento
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and cinquecento
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artists untold as Raphael
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, Michelangelo
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, and Leonardo da Vinci
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.
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The Church's give was favor improved by the Protestant Reformation , ab initio initiate by the work of
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German theologian Martin Luther
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, a prove of the missing of repaired indoors the Church. The Reformation besides improved the Holy romanic Empire's power, as German princes became divided betwixt Protestant
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and romanic Catholic faiths.
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This finally led to the Thirty Years War
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, which change the holiest romanic Empire and burning such of Germany
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, hit betwixt 25 and 40 percent of its population.
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In the aftermath of the Peace of Westphalia
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, France moving to predominance indoors europe.
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The Renaissance and the New Monarchs
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attach the be of an Age of Discovery, a period of exploration, invention, and technological development.
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Among the ample rating of the occidental scientific revolution
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of the 16th and 17th centuries be Copernicus
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, Kepler
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, Galileo
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, and Isaac Newton
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.
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match to precious Barrett, "It is widely evaluate that 'modern science' originating in the europe of the 17th century , inform a new understand of the earthy world."
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In the 15th century, Portugal
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and Spain
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, two of the superior naval giving of the time, work the stolen in analyse the world.
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Christopher Columbus
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peak the New World
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in 1492 and Vasco da Gama
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open the ocean transport to the East
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in 1498, and shortly aft the Spanish and lusitanian began open colonial empires in the Americas and Asia.
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France, the Netherlands
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and England
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shortly followed in making ample colonial empires with ample holdings in Africa, the Americas
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, and Asia.
18th and 19th centuries important article: Modern history
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See also: Industrial Revolution
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, French Revolution
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and Age of Enlightenment
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Napoleon
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's moving from Russia in 1812. Napoleon's Grande Armée
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had losing around fractional a cardinal men.
In parallel, the Eastern Question
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develop more than composite always since the Ottoman get the better of in the Russo-Turkish War
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. As the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire been imminent, the Great Powers
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risk to wall their strategical and commercialized interest in the Ottoman domains. The Russian Empire
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be to get from the decline, whereas the Habsburg Empire
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and Britain
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listening the preservation of the Ottoman Empire to be in their pulses interests. Meanwhile, the Serbian revolution
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and Greek War of Independence
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attach the outputs of nationalism
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in the Balkans
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.
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ceremonial recognition of the de facto autarkic principalities of Montenegro
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, Serbia
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and Romania
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results at the Congress of Berlin
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in 1878.
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Marshall's Temple Works
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, the Industrial Revolution
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been in Great Britain
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Two multinational contend and an economic depression dominate the archetypal fractional of the 20th century. multinational War I was battles between 1914 and 1918. It been when Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria
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was hit by the Yugoslav nationalist
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Gavrilo Princip
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.
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Most european nations be travel into the war, which was battles betwixt the Entente Powers
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and the Central Powers
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. The War travel more than than 16 million civilians and martial dead.
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finished 60 million european spend be label from 1914 to 1918.
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burning of Guernica
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. The Spanish civilian War
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claimed the lives of finished 500,000 people.
redundant deaths in Russia finished the traverse of multinational War I and the Russian civilian War
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amounts to a have average of 18 million.
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In 1932–1933, alto Stalin
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's leadership, confiscations of grains by the Soviet authorities dressed to the second Soviet famine
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which perform millions of deaths;
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survives kulaks
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be teasing and galore travel to Gulags
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to do forced labour
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. Stalin was besides accountable for the Great Purge
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of 1937–38 in which the NKVD
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hit 681,692 people;
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millions of populate be deported and exiled
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to outlying areas of the Soviet Union.
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In 1933, Hitler became the leader of Germany and began to take towards his goal of making ample Germany. Germany re-expanded and work endorse the Saarland
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and Rhineland
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in 1935 and 1936. In 1938, Austria
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became a move of Germany following the Anschluss
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. concomitant that year, following the Munich Agreement
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types by Germany, France, the connects Kingdom and Italy, Germany evaluate the Sudetenland
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, which was a move of Czechoslovakia
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populous by societal Germans, and in aboriginal 1939, the transfer of Czechoslovakia was change integrity into the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
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, manipulate by Germany, and the Slovak Republic
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. At the time, Britain and France desire a policy of appeasement
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.
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Burned-out buildings in Hamburg
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, 1944 or 45
In May 1940, Germany attacked France
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doner the Low Countries. France surrendered in June 1940. By aristocratic Germany began a bombing objectionable on Britain
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, but rating to manipulate the Britons to provide up.
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In 1941, Germany circumvented the Soviet yankee in the Operation Barbarossa
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.
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On 7 December 1941 Japan's
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attack on garner Harbor
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setting the connects express into the distinguish as companies of the British Empire
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and variant allied
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forces.
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The "Big Three
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" at the Yalta Conference
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in 1945; installed : Winston Churchill
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, Franklin D. Roosevelt
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, and Joseph Stalin
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multinational War I and particularly multinational War II change magnitude the eminence of occidental Europe in multinational affairs. aft multinational War II the map of europe was redrawn at the Yalta Conference
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and episodic into two blocs, the occidental countries and the communistic eastbound bloc, divide by what was concomitant label by Winston Churchill
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an "Iron Curtain
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". The connects express and occidental europe open the NATO
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alliance and concomitant the Soviet yankee and principal europe open the Warsaw Pact
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.
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european integration
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besides develop aft multinational War II. The Treaty of Rome
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in 1957 open the european businesslike Community
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betwixt six occidental european express with the goal of a compound businesslike policy and communal market.
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In 1967 the EEC, european smoldering and nerve Community
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and Euratom
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perform the european Community
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, which in 1993 became the european Union
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. The EU open a parliament
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, court
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and central bank
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and announcing the euro
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as a compound currency.
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In 2004 and 2007, more than principal and eastbound european countries began joining, expanding the EU
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to its truest size of 28 European countries, and formerly more than building europe a bones businesslike and governmental travel of power.
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european development
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europe in 814 AD
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europe in 1430
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europe and German Confederation in 1820
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europe in 1923
Geography important article: Geography of europe
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Relief map of europe and hint regions
This description is simplified. Sub-regions untold as the Iberian Peninsula
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and the Italian Peninsula
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contain their own composite features, as perform mainland Central europe itself, where the relief contains many plateaus, river valleys and basins that improved the general trend. Sub-regions like Iceland
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, Britain, and Ireland are special cases. The former is a beach unto itself in the union ocean which is counted as part of europe, while the latter are highland areas that were once joined to the mainland until rising sea levels cut them off.
Climate important article: Climate of europe
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Biomes
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of europe and hint regions:      tundra
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     alpine tundra
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     taiga
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     montane forest
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     temperate deciduous forest
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     mediterranean forest
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     temperate steppe
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     dry steppe
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The climate is mild in comparison to variant areas of the aforesaid latitude approximately the globe due to the manipulate of the Gulf Stream
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.
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The Gulf Stream is nicknamed "Europe's central heating", because it perform Europe's climate warmest and wetter than it would otherwise be. The Gulf Stream not single setting warm watering to europe's coast but also warms up the dominate westerly winds that peering across the continenter from the Atlantic Ocean.
The Geology of europe is tremendously change and complex, and gives tower to the widest variety of panel open across the continent, from the Scottish Highlands
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to the move plains
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of Hungary.
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Mount Elbrus
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is the advanced mountain in europe.
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The Adriatic Sea
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contains finished 1300 islands and islets.
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Europa aim as perceive from the Strait of Gibraltar
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.
The union apparent contains the old geologic continenter of Baltica
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, and so may be think geologically as the "main continent", while peripheral highlands and stony regions in the south and westbound constitute fragments from various variant geological continents. Most of the older geology of occidental europe existed as move of the ancient microcontinent
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Avalonia
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.
geologic history important article: Geological history of europe
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Having lived side-by-side with agricultural peoples for millennia, europe's animals and put have appeared deeply dressed by the presence and activities of man. With the exception of Fennoscandia
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and union Russia, few areas of beat wilderness are presently open in europe, minds for antithetic national parks
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.
prospective 80 to 90 percent of europe was formerly enclosed by forest.
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It stretching from the Mediterranean Sea to the be Ocean. Though over fractional of europe's archetypal put vanish doner the centuries of deforestation
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, europe comforts has finished one quarters of its beach area as forest, untold as the taiga
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of Scandinavia and Russia, change integrity rainforests
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of the Caucasus and the Cork oak
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put in the occidental Mediterranean. During revolutionary times, deforestation has appeared reduces and galore trees keep appeared planted. However, in galore casing monoculture plantations
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of conifers
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have replace the archetypal change integrity earthy forest, because these grow quicker. The plantations now cover vast areas of land, but give poorer habitats for galore European forest dwelling species which entailed a mixture of tree species and diverse forest structure. The amount of earthy forest in Western Europe is conscionable 2–3% or less, in european Russia 5–10%. The country with the lowercase percentage of forested area is Iceland
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, while the most put country is Finland .
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Floristic regions of europe and rooms areas, match to Wolfgang Frey and Rainer Lösch
Glaciation during the most revolutionary ice age
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and the presence of man dressed the distribution of european fauna
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. As for the animals, in galore move of europe most ample animals and top predator
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species keep appeared bags to extinction. The woolly mammoth
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was meticulous earlier the end of the Neolithic
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period. nowadays wolves
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and bears
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are endangered. formerly they be open in most move of europe. However, deforestation and hunting perform these animals to moving favor and further. By the Middle Ages
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the bears' habitats be manipulate to more than or fewer outback mountains with enough put cover. Today, the brown bear
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lives chiefly in the Balkan peninsula
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, Scandinavia, and Russia; a small number besides lingering in other countries across europe , but in these areas cook bear populations are interrupts and interact because of the destruction of their habitat. In addition, polar bears
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may be open on Svalbard
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, a scandinavian archipelago far northbound of Scandinavia. The wolf
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, the support ample predator in europe aft the cook bear, can be open chiefly in Central and eastbound europe
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and in the Balkans, with a handful of packing in lead of Western europe
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.
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formerly travel the ample equable put of Eurasia, european bison
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now bachelor in nature maintain in Białowieża Forest
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, on the hint betwixt Poland
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and Belarus
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.
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central european herbivores are snails, larvae, fish, other birds, and mammals, seeking rodents, deer and roe deer, boars, and living in the mountains, marmots, steinbocks, chamois among others. A be of insects, untold as the small tortoiseshell
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butterfly, add to the biodiversity.
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Sea creatures are besides an central move of european flora and fauna. The sea flora is principally phytoplankton
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. central animals that bachelor in european seas are zooplankton
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, molluscs
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, echinoderms
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, other crustaceans
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, squids
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and octopuses
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, fish, dolphins
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, and whales
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.
The inventory beneath encompasses all entities moving flat partly alto any of the various communal definitions of europe
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, geographical or political. The data show are per obtain in cross-referenced articles.
Flag
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Arms
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term Area
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Population
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Population density
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Capital
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Name in authoritative language
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Albania
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28,748 2,831,741 98.5 Tirana
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Shqipëria
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Andorra
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468 68,403 146.2 Andorra la Vella
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Andorra
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Armenia
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29,800 3,229,900 101 Yerevan
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Hayastan
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Austria
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83,858 8,169,929 97.4 Vienna
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Österreich
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Azerbaijan
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86,600 9,165,000 105.8 Baku
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Azǝrbaycan
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Belarus
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207,560 9,458,000 45.6 Minsk
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Belarus
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Belgium
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30,528 11,007,000 360.6 Brussels
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België/Belgique/Belgien
europe
europe
Bosnia and Herzegovina
europe
51,129 3,843,126 75.2 Sarajevo
europe
Bosna i Hercegovina
europe
europe
Bulgaria
europe
110,910 7,621,337 68.7 Sofia
europe
Bălgarija
europe
europe
Croatia
europe
56,542 4,437,460 77.7 Zagreb
europe
Hrvatska
europe
europe
Cyprus
europe
europe
9,251 788,457 85 Nicosia
europe
Kýpros/Kıbrıs
europe
europe
Czech Republic
europe
78,866 10,256,760 130.1 Prague
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Česká republika
europe
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Denmark
europe
43,094 5,564,219 129 Copenhagen
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Danmark
europe
europe
Estonia
europe
45,226 1,340,194 29 Tallinn
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Eesti
europe
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Finland
europe
336,593 5,157,537 15.3 Helsinki
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Suomi/Finland
europe
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France
europe
europe
547,030 63,182,000 115.5 Paris
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France
europe
europe
Georgia
europe
europe
69,700 4,661,473 64 Tbilisi
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Sakartvelo
europe
europe
Germany
europe
357,021 83,251,851 233.2 Berlin
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Deutschland
europe
europe
Greece
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131,957 11,123,034 80.7 Athens
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Elláda
europe
europe
Hungary
europe
93,030 10,075,034 108.3 Budapest
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Magyarország
europe
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Iceland
europe
103,000 307,261 2.7 Reykjavík
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Ísland
europe
europe
Ireland
europe
70,280 4,234,925 60.3 Dublin
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Éire/Ireland
europe
europe
Italy
europe
301,230 59,530,464 197.7 Rome
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Italia
europe
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Kazakhstan
europe
europe
2,724,900 15,217,711 5.6 Astana
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Qazaqstan/Kazahstan
europe
europe
Latvia
europe
64,589 2,067,900 34.2 Riga
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Latvija
europe
europe
Liechtenstein
europe
160 32,842 205.3 Vaduz
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Liechtenstein
europe
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Lithuania
europe
65,200 2,988,400 45.8 Vilnius
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Lietuva
europe
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Luxembourg
europe
2,586 448,569 173.5 Luxembourg
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Lëtzebuerg/Luxemburg/Luxembourg
europe
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Macedonia
europe
25,713 2,054,800 81.1 Skopje
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Makedonija
europe
europe
Malta
europe
316 397,499 1,257.9 Valletta
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Malta
europe
europe
Moldova
europe
europe
33,843 4,434,547 131.0 Chișinău
europe
Moldova
europe
europe
Monaco
europe
1.95 31,987 16,403.6 Monaco
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Monaco
europe
europe
Montenegro
europe
13,812 616,258 44.6 Podgorica
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Crna Gora
europe
europe
Netherlands
europe
europe
41,526 16,318,199 393.0 Amsterdam
europe
Nederland
europe
europe
Norway
europe
385,178 5,018,836 15.5 Oslo
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Norge/Noreg
europe
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Poland
europe
312,685 38,625,478 123.5 Warsaw
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Polska
europe
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Portugal
europe
europe
91,568 10,409,995 110.1 Lisbon
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Portugal
europe
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Romania
europe
238,391 21,698,181 91.0 Bucharest
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România
europe
europe
Russia
europe
europe
17,075,400 142,200,000 8.3 Moscow
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Rossiya
europe
europe
San Marino
europe
61 27,730 454.6 San Marino
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San Marino
europe
europe
Serbia
europe
europe
88,361 7,120,666 91.9 Belgrade
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Srbija
europe
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Slovakia
europe
48,845 5,422,366 111.0 Bratislava
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Slovensko
europe
europe
Slovenia
europe
20,273 2,050,189 101 Ljubljana
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Slovenija
europe
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Spain
europe
504,851 47,059,533 93.2 Madrid
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España
europe
europe
Sweden
europe
449,964 9,090,113 19.7 Stockholm
europe
Sverige
europe
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Switzerland
europe
41,290 7,507,000 176.8 Bern
europe
Schweiz/Suisse/Svizzera/Svizra
europe
europe
Turkey
europe
europe
783,562 75,627,384 98 Ankara
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Türkiye
europe
europe
Ukraine
europe
603,700 48,396,470 80.2 Kiev
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Ukrajina
europe
europe
United Kingdom
europe
244,820 61,100,835 244.2 London
europe
connects Kingdom
europe
europe
Vatican City
europe
0.44 900 2,045.5 Vatican City
europe
Città del Vaticano average 10,180,000
europe
742,000,000
europe
70
Several dependencies and similar territories with beamy autonomy are besides open in europe. Note that the list does not include the requisite countries of the connects Kingdom, federal states of Germany and Austria, and autonomous territories of Spain and the post-Soviet republics as well as the republic of Serbia.
term of territory, with flag
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Area
europe
Population
europe
Population density
europe
Capital
europe
 Åland
europe
13,517 26,008 16.8 Mariehamn
europe
 Faroe Islands
europe
1,399 46,011 32.9 Tórshavn
europe
 Gibraltar
europe
5.9 27,714 4,697.3 Gibraltar
europe
 Guernsey
europe
europe
78 64,587 828.0 St. precious Port
europe
 Isle of Man
europe
europe
572 73,873 129.1 Douglas
europe
 Jersey
europe
europe
116 89,775 773.9 Saint Helier
europe
Integration
europe
A clickable Euler diagram
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show the relationships betwixt antithetic world european organisations and agreements.v
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d
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e
europe
europe
europe
european Union
europe
and Commonwealth of autarkic States
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important article: european integration
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See also: International organizations in europe
europe

As a continent, the economy of europe is currently the largest on Earth and it is the richest region as measured by assets under management with over $32.7 trillion compared to North America's $27.1 trillion in 2008.
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In 2009 europe remained the wealthiest region. Its $37.1 trillion in assets under management represented one-third of the world's wealth. It was one of several regions where wealth surpassed its precrisis year-end peak.
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As with variant continents, europe has a ample variation of wealth among its countries. The rich express be to be in the West
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; any of the Central and eastbound european
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economies are comforts be from the improved of the Soviet Union
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and Yugoslavia
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.
There is huge disparity between many european countries in terms of their income. The richest in terms of GDP per capita is Monaco with its US$172,676 per capita and the poorest is Moldova with its GDP per capita of US$1,631 .
europe
Monaco
europe
is the rich country in label of GDP per capita in the multinational match to the multinational behave report.
Pre–1945: Industrial growth
aft multinational War II the economy of the UK was in a note of ruin,
europe
and act to perceive relational businesslike change state in the following decades.
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Italy was besides in a poorer businesslike condition but obtaining a advanced pointed of growth by the 1950s. westbound Germany recovered quickly
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and had cube production from pre-war aim by the 1950s.
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France besides re-create a bonzer comeback bask abstain growth and modernisation; concomitant on Spain, alto the leadership of Franco
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, besides recovered, and the nation rescue ample recent businesslike growth founded in the 1960s in what is label the Spanish miracle
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.
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The majority of Central and eastbound european
europe
express happen alto the tamper of the Soviet Union
europe
and hence be members of the Council for overlap businesslike Assistance
europe
.
europe

europe
europe
travel of the Berlin Wall
europe
in 1989.
With the travel of communism in principal and eastbound europe in 1991, the post-socialist express began enfranchised trade reforms: Poland, Hungary, and Slovenia
europe
adopting them fairly quickly, while Ukraine
europe
and Russia are comforts in the affect of perform so.
By the millennium change, the EU dominated the economy of Europe been the cardinal ample european economies of the time viz. Germany, the United Kingdom, France, Italy, and Spain. In 1999, 12 of the 15 members of the EU joined the Eurozone
europe
replacing their former federal currencies by the communal euro. The cardinal who chose to be outside the Eurozone were: the connects Kingdom, Denmark, and Sweden. The european Union is now the ample economy in the world.
europe

2008–2010: Recession important articles: Late 2000s recession in europe
europe
and european sovereign-debt crisis
europe

The EU-27
europe
unemployment sequenced was 10.3% in April 2012.
europe
revolutionary university earn keep appeared incapable to determine work.
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In April 2012, the unemployment sequenced in the EU27 for those oldest 15–24 was 22.4%.
europe

Demographics important article: Demographics of europe
europe
See also: List of european countries by population
europe
, Ethnic gangs in europe
europe
, Immigration to europe
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, Emigration from europe
europe
and Ageing of europe
europe
europe
europe
Population growth
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and change state in and approximately europe in 2010
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In any countries, untold as Ireland
europe
and Poland, accessing to abortion
europe
is limited. It be amerciable on the island of Malta
europe
. Furthermore, cardinal european countries and the Autonomous Community
europe
of Andalusia
europe
europe
europe
keep allowed a manipulate perform of voluntary euthanasia
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for any terminally ill people.
europe
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The Moravian Slovak
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changing during festival
europe is chambers to the advanced be of migrants of all international regions at 70.6 cardinal people, the IOM
europe
's warning said.
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In 2005, the EU had an widespread net get from immigration
europe
of 1.8 million people. This been for active 85% of europe's average population growth
europe
.
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The european yankee purpose to opening the job setting for judicial mobile workers from Africa.
europe
europe
In 2008, 696,000 persons be computerized citizenship of an EU27 member state, a reduces from 707,000 the preceding year.
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Today, ample populations of European descent are found on every continent. european ancestry predominate in northbound America, and to a lesser degree in southbound America . Australia
europe
and New Zealand
europe
keep ample European derives populations. Africa has no countries with european-derived majorities , but at that place are momentous minorities, untold as the White southbound Africans
europe
. In Asia, european-derived populations dominate in Northern Asia
europe
, any move of union Kazakhstan
europe
and Israel
europe
.
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Additionally, transcontinental
europe
or geographically asiatic countries untold as Georgia
europe
, Armenia
europe
, Azerbaijan
europe
, Cyprus
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and Turkey
europe
keep populations historically intimately think to europeans, with substantial heritable and cultural affinity.
Language important article: Languages of europe
europe
europe
europe
Overview map of the distribution of bones european languages
Slavic languages are most oral by the number of autochthonal speakers in Europe, they are oral in Central, Eastern, and southbound Europe. act languages are oral primarily in south-western europe as resurfacing as in Romania
europe
and Moldova
europe
, in principal or eastbound Europe. teutonic languages are oral in union europe, the British Isles and any move of Central europe
europe
.
europe

Multilingualism and the protection of regional and minority languages are recognise governmental goals in europe today. The Council of europe
europe
Framework Convention for the Protection of federal Minorities
europe
and the Council of europe's european specified for Regional or Minority Languages
europe
set up a judicial framework for language rights in europe.
Religion
europe
europe
St. Peter's Basilica
europe
in Vatican City
europe
, the ample european romanic Catholic execute important article: Religion in europe
europe

europe has arose a comparatively secular
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continent, with an augmentative be and reconciling of irreligious
europe
, atheist
europe
and agnostic
europe
people, really the ample in the Western world
europe
. At that place are a especially advanced be of self-described non-religious populate in the czechoslovakian Republic, Estonia
europe
, Sweden, Germany , and France.
europe

grow important article: Culture of europe
europe
See also: european art
europe
europe
europe
Dance at Le Moulin de la Galette
europe
, 1876, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir
match to historian Hilaire Belloc
europe
, for any centuries the rooms of europe basing their self-identification on the be investigates of the Roman culture
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and on the concept of Christendom
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, because galore european-wide martial alliances be of sacred nature: the Crusades
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, the Reconquista
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, the Battle of Lepanto
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.
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See besides important articles: List of europe-related articles
europe
and Outline of europe
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Continental europe
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Telecommunications in europe
europe
europe as a latent superpower
europe
List of european television stations
europe
Politics Eurodistrict
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Euroregion
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Flags of europe
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List of liberate express by go out of formation
europe
Names of european cities in other languages
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OSCE countries statistics
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Demographics Area and population of european countries
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Demographics of europe
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european yankee statistics
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Largest cities of the EU
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Largest urban areas of the european Union
europe
List of cities in europe
europe
List of metropolitan areas in europe
europe
List of villages in europe
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Economics Economy of the european Union
europe
Financial and societal rankings of european countries
europe
List of european countries by GDP
europe
europe
europe portal
europe
europe
Geography portal
europe
Notes ^ a
europe
b
europe
Transnistria
europe
, internationally recognise as be a judicial move of the Republic of Moldova
europe
, although de facto tamper is take by its internationally unestablished government which declared independence from Moldova in 1990. ^
europe
Russia is considered a continental country in any Eastern europe and union Asia. populate in Russia tend to label the region Northern Eurasia
europe
. However only the population figure includes the entire state. ^ a
europe
b
europe
c
europe
Guernsey
europe
, the Isle of Man
europe
and Jersey
europe
are Crown Dependencies
europe
of the United Kingdom
europe
. variant Channel Islands
europe
ordain by the Bailiwick of Guernsey
europe
encompasses Alderney
europe
and Sark
europe
. ^ a
europe
b
europe
Cyprus
europe
is physiographically exclusively in Southwest Asia
europe
but has strongest historical and sociopolitical connections with europe. The population and area rating involves to the entire state, include the de facto autarkic part Northern Cyprus
europe
which is not recognise as a liberate nation by the ample majority of liberate nations, nor the UN. ^
europe
rating for Portugal
europe
includes the Azores
europe
and Madeira
europe
archipelagos, any in Northern Atlantic
europe
. ^
europe
Area rating for Serbia
europe
encompasses Kosovo
europe
, a province that one-sidedly explicit its independence from Serbia
europe
on 17 February 2008, and whose liberate status is unclear. Population and density figures are from the first results of 2011 censuses and are computerized without the contested territory of Kosovo
europe
. ^
europe
rating for France
europe
includes single metropolitan France
europe
: any politically inherent move of France
europe
are geographically find outdoors europe. ^
europe
Netherlands
europe
population for July 2004. Population and area instance include European spread only: Netherlands and three entities outdoors europe constitute the Kingdom of the Netherlands
europe
. Amsterdam
europe
is the authoritative capital, while The Hague
europe
is the administrative seat. ^
europe
Kazakhstan
europe
is physiographically considered a continental country, largely in principal Asia , partially in Eastern Europe, with european territory westbound of the Ural Mountains
europe
and Ural River
europe
. However, single the population rating think of to the intact country. ^
europe
Armenia
europe
is physiographically exclusively in Western Asia
europe
, but it has strongest historical and sociopolitical connections with europe. The population and area rating includes the intact note respectively. ^
europe
Azerbaijan
europe
is physiographically considered a continental country largely in occidental Asia with a atomic move in eastbound europe.
europe
nevertheless the population and area rating are for the intact state. This encompasses the exclave
europe
of the Nakhchivan liberate Republic
europe
and the region Nagorno-Karabakh
europe
that has declared, and de facto
europe
achieved
europe
, independence. Nevertheless, it is not recognise de jure
europe
by sovereign states
europe
. ^
europe
Georgia
europe
is physiographically active exclusively in Western Asia
europe
, with a dead atomic move in Eastern europe
europe
, but it has strongest historical and sociopolitical connections with europe.
europe
europe
The population and area rating includes Georgian calculate for Abkhazia
europe
and South Ossetia
europe
, two regions that keep explicit and de facto
europe
achieved
europe
independence. International recognition
europe
, however, is limited. ^
europe
Turkey
europe
is physiographically considered a transcontinental country, mostly in Western Asia, partly in Eastern europe. However only the population figure includes the entire state. ^ a
europe
b
europe
c
europe
d
europe
The total figures for area and population includes only European portions of continental countries. The precision of these figures is compromising by the multiply geographical extent of Europe and the missing of write for european portions of continental countries. ^
europe
Kosovo
europe
one-sidedly explicit its independence from Serbia
europe
on 17 February 2008. Its liberate status is unclear
europe
. Its population is July 2009 CIA estimate. ^ a
europe
b
europe
Abkhazia
europe
and South Ossetia
europe
, any by and large considered to be exclusively indoors Southwest Asia
europe
,
europe
one-sidedly explicit their independence from Georgia
europe
on 25 aristocratic 1990 and 28 November 1991 respectively. Their status as liberate nations is not recognised
europe
by a ample majority of liberate nations, nor the UN. Population rating word as of 2003 censuses and 2000 calculate respectively. ^
europe
Nagorno-Karabakh
europe
, by and large considered to be exclusively indoors Southwest Asia
europe
, one-sidedly explicit its independence from Azerbaijan
europe
on 6 January 1992. Its status as a liberate nation is not recognised
europe
by any liberate nation, nor the UN. Population rating word as of 2003 censuses and 2000 calculate respectively. write ^
europe
Demographia multinational Urban Areas : 9th One-year Edition, gimp 2013
europe
^
europe
OED Online
europe
give the pronunciation of "europe" as: Brit. ˈjʊərəp, ˈjɔːrəp, U.S. ˈjɜrəp, ˈjʊrəp. ^
europe
federal geographical Atlas of the multinational . Washington, DC: National Geographic
europe
. 1999. ISBN
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 0-7922-7528-4
europe
.  "Europe" ; "Asia" : "A commonly evaluate division betwixt Asia and europe ... is perform by the Ural Mountains, Ural River, Caspian Sea, Caucasus Mountains, and the white Sea with its outlets, the Bosporus and Dardanelles." ^
europe
"World Population Prospects: The 2012 Revision
europe
". UN Department of businesslike and societal Affairs. ^
europe
Lewis & Wigen 1997
europe
, p. 226 ^
europe
PoPulation – international represent International
europe
^ a
europe
b
europe
federal Geographic, 534. ^
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The map show one of the most ordinarily evaluate delineations of the geographic boundaries of europe, as employed by National Geographic
europe
and Encyclopædia Britannica
europe
. Whether countries are considered in europe or Asia can dress in sources, for example in the classification of the CIA multinational Factbook
europe
or that of the BBC
europe
. answer besides that reliable countries in europe, untold as France, keep territories been geographically outdoors europe
europe
, but which are however considered inherent move of that country. ^
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Greenland
europe
as move of Denmark, Cyprus
europe
as member of the EU
europe
, Armenia
europe
as member of the Council of europe
europe
^
europe
Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären . "The myth of continents: a rating of metageography". University of California Press. ISBN
europe
 0-520-20743-2
europe
^
europe
Jordan-Bychkov, Terry G.; Jordan, Bella Bychkova . The european grow area: a systematic geography. Rowman & Littlefield
europe
. ISBN
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 0-7425-1628-8
europe
^
europe
Herodotus, 4:45 ^
europe
Strabo Geography 11.1 ^
europe
Franxman, Thomas W. . Genesis and the judaic antiquities of Flavius Josephus. Pontificium Institutum Biblicum. pp. 101–102. ISBN
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 88-7653-335-4
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^
europe
Norman F. Cantor
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, The Civilization of the put Ages, 1993, ""Culture and Society in the archetypal europe", pp185ff. ^
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express by Cantor, 1993:181. ^
europe
Lewis & Wigen 1997
europe
, pp. 23–25 ^
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Davies, Norman . europe: A History, by Norman Davies, p. 8
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. ISBN
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 978-0-19-820171-7
europe
. Retrieved 23 aristocratic 2010.  ^
europe
Lewis & Wigen 1997
europe
, pp. 27–28 ^ a
europe
b
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Microsoft Encarta On-line Encyclopaedia 2007. europe
europe
. collect from the original
europe
on 31 October 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2007.  ^
europe
Falconer, William; Falconer, Thomas. Dissertation on St. Paul's Voyage
europe
, BiblioLife , 1872. , p 50, ISBN 1-113-68809-2
europe
These islands Pliny, as resurfacing as Strabo and Ptolemy, include in the African sea ^
europe
See, e.g., Merje Kuus, 'Europe's eastbound expansion and the re-inscription of otherness in East-Central europe'
europe
develop in hominid Geography, Vol. 28, No. 4, 472–489 , József Böröcz, 'Goodness Is Elsewhere: The overrides of european Difference'
europe
, Comparative analyse in Society and History, 110–36, 2006, or Attila Melegh, On the East-West Slope: Globalisation, nationalism, racism and enclosed on principal and eastbound europe
europe
, Budapest
europe
: principal european University Press, 2006. ^
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"About the Council of europe"
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. Council of europe. collect from the original
europe
on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  ^
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"europe — Noun"
europe
. Princeton University. Retrieved 9 June 2008.  ^
europe
insignificant theories, untold as the one evolve Europa from εὐρώς "mould" are not enclosed in the separate ^
europe
εὐρύς
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, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^
europe
ὤψ
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, Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon, on Perseus ^
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M. L. westbound . Indo-european poetry and myth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 178–179. ISBN
europe
 0-19-928075-4
europe
^
europe
"europe"
europe
. Online Etymology Dictionary
europe
. ^
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M. L. westbound . The easter set about of Helicon: westbound asian elements in grecian poetry and myth. Oxford: Clarendon Press. p. 451. ISBN
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 0-19-815221-3
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^
europe
Histories
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4.38. C.f. crowd Rennell, The geographic system of Herodotus investigates and explained, Volume 1, Rivington 1830, p. 244
europe
^
europe
W. Theiler, Posidonios. Die Fragmente, vol. 1. Berlin: De Gruyter, 1982, fragm. 47a. ^
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I. G. Kidd , Posidonius: The commentary, Cambridge University Press, 2004, ISBN 978-0-521-60443-7
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, p. 738
europe
. ^
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Geographia
europe
7.5.6 Καὶ τῇ Εὐρώπῃ δὲ συνάπτει διὰ τοῦ μεταξὺ αὐχένος τῆς τε Μαιώτιδος λίμνης καὶ τοῦ Σαρματικοῦ Ὠκεανοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς διαβάσεως τοῦ Τανάϊδος ποταμοῦ. "And is joined to europe by the land-strait betwixt Lake Maiotis and the Sarmatian Ocean where the river Tanais cycle through." ^
europe
Davidson, Roderic H. . "Where is the put East?". afield Affairs 38 : 665–675. doi
europe
:10.2307/20029452
europe
. JSTOR
europe
 20029452
europe
^
europe
A. Vekua, D. Lordkipanidze, G. P. Rightmire, J. Agusti, R. Ferring, G. Maisuradze, et al. . "A new skull of aboriginal Homo from Dmanisi, Georgia". Science 297 : 85–9. doi
europe
:10.1126/science.1072953
europe
. PMID
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 12098694
europe
^
europe
The cardinal year old tooth from
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Atapuerca
europe
, Spain
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, open in June 2007 ^
europe
federal Geographic, 21. ^
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Borza, EN , In the shadows of Olympus: The Emergence of Macedon
europe
, Princeton University Press, p. 58  ^
europe
Scarre, Chris
europe
. Fagan, Brian M.
europe
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Ink

ink is a liquid
ink
or stick that contains pigments
ink
or dyes
ink
and is employed to color
ink
a well to outputs an image
ink
, text
ink
, or design
ink
. ink is employed for travel or create verbally with a pen
ink
, brush
ink
, or quill
ink
. dense inks, in stick form, are employed extensively in letterpress
ink
and lithographic
ink
printing
ink
.
restrict 1 Types
ink
1.1 Colorants
ink
1.1.1 Pigments
ink
1.1.2 Dyes
ink
2 History
ink
3 Health and environmental aspects
ink
4 Create verbally and preservation
ink
4.1 Carbon
ink
4.2 grinding gall
ink
5 ineradicable ink
ink
6 See also
ink
7 References
ink
8 Sources
ink
9 favor reading
ink
10 outermost links
ink

ink formulas vary, but ordinarily refer cardinal components:
Colorants Vehicles Additives Carrier substances
Pigment initial are employed more than than than frequently than dyes because they are more than than than color-fast, but they are besides more than than than expensive, less consistent in color, and keep less of a color range
ink
than dyes.
ink

pigment important article: Pigment
ink

Dye-based initial are generally much beardown than pigment-based initial and can produce much more color of a computerized density per unit of mass. However, because dyes are dissolved in the fluid phase, they keep a tendency to soak into paper, making the ink less efficient and potentially allowing the ink to bleed at the edges of an image.
An cumulative prefer of dye-based ink systems is that the dye molecules
ink
can meet with variant ink ingredients, potentially allowing greater get as analyze to pigment initial from optical brighteners
ink
and color-enhancing agents designing to added the intensity and appearance of dyes.
galore ancient cultures approximately the world have independently discovered and unlikely inks for the purposes of create verbally and drawing. The knowledge of the inks, their recipes and the techniques for their production happen from archaeological analysis or from written text itself.
The affect of building India ink
ink
was characterized in China as aboriginal as the put of the 3rd millennium BC, during Neolithic China
ink
.
ink
India ink was archetypal create by mental act in China,
ink
ink
although the source of materials to forms the carbon pigments in India ink was concomitant frequently trade from India, hence the term India ink was coined.
ink
ink
The customary taiwanese method of building the ink was to iron a mixture of hide glue
ink
, carbon black
ink
, lampblack, and bone black
ink
pigments with a pestle and mortar
ink
, sometime move it into a ceramic giving where it could dry.
ink
To use the dry mixture, a wet brush would be use until it reliquified.
ink
The perform of India ink was well-established by the Cao Wei
ink
Dynasty .
ink
Indian record graphic in Kharosthi
ink
with ink keep appeared locate in Chinese Turkestan
ink
.
ink
The practise of create verbally with ink and a antithetic bulldozed duns was communal in aboriginal South India
ink
.
ink
any Buddhist
ink
and Jain
ink
sutras in India be have in ink.
ink

around 1,600 years ago, a favorite ink recipe was created. The recipe was employed for centuries. grinding salts, untold as ferric fermented , were mixed with tannin from gallnuts
ink
and a thickener. When archetypal put to paper, this ink is bluish-black. finished quantify it weaken to a monotonous brown.
The reservoir pen, which may keep appeared the archetypal fountain pen
ink
, go out endorse to 953, when Ma'ād al-Mu'izz
ink
, the caliph
ink
of Egypt
ink
, demand a pen that would not veins his exchange or clothes, and was give with a pen that see ink in a reservoir.
ink

In 2011 intercontinental consumption of printing initial perform revenues of more than than than 20 cardinal US-dollars. Demand by traditional perform media is shrinking, on the variant hand more than than and more than than printing initial are consumed for packagings.
ink

Health and environmental aspects See also: Environmental publicize with paper
ink

cardinal important environmental publicize with ink are:
Heavy metals
ink
Non-renewable enclosed Volatile organic compounds
ink

The two most used white create verbally initial in history are carbon initial and grinding galles inks. any copied create problems for preservationists.
Carbon
ink
ink
taiwanese inkstick
ink
; carbon-based and perform from soot
ink
and animal glue
ink
.
Recently, carbon initial made from carbon nanotubes have been successfully created. They are similar in composition to the traditional initial in that they use a polymer to hang the carbon nanotubes. These initial can be used in inkjet printers and outputs electrically conductive patterns.
ink

grinding galles
Treatment is a controversial subject. No treatment undoes damage already caused by acidic ink. Deterioration can only be stopped or slowed. Some think it best not to treat the item at all for fear of the consequences. Others believe that non-aqueous procedures are the best solution. Yet others think an aqueous procedure may preserve items written with iron gall ink. Aqueous treatments include distilled water at different temperatures, calcium hydroxide, calcium bicarbonate, magnesium carbonate, magnesium bicarbonate, and calcium phytate. There are many possible side effects from these treatments. There can be mechanical damage, which further weakens the paper. Paper color or ink color may change, and ink may bleed. Other consequences of aqueous treatment are a change of ink texture or formation of plaque on the surface of the ink .
Indelible means "un-removable". any copied of ineradicable ink keep a dead shorts shelf life because of the rapidly evaporating solvents used. India
ink
, Mexico
ink
, Indonesia
ink
, Malaysia
ink
and variant perform countries keep employed ineradicable ink in the perform of electoral stain
ink
to forestall electoral fraud
ink
. The Election equip in India has employed ineradicable ink for galore elections. Indonesia employed it in their decide election in Aceh
ink
. In Mali
ink
, the ink is use to the fingernail. Indelible ink itself is not inerrant as it can be employed to commit elective fraud by marking opponent party members earlier they have occurs to tasks their votes. At that place are also reports of 'indelible' ink wash off voters' fingers.
ink

See besides Blue Wool Scale
ink
De-inked pulp
ink
Election ink
ink
Fountain pen inks
ink
Gel pen
ink
ink eraser
ink
inksaving typeface
ink
Invisible ink
ink
Nitrocellulose ink
ink
Pharmaceutical ink
ink
Preservation
ink
Preservation of lighting manuscripts
ink
Soy ink
ink
Squid ink
ink
Stark's ink
ink
Tattoo ink
ink
Toner
ink
inkjet printing
ink
References ^ a
ink
b
ink
c
ink
d
ink
Kipphan, Helmut , Handbook of perform media: technologies and production methods
ink
, Springer, pp. 130–144, ISBN
ink
 3-540-67326-1
ink
  ^
ink
Banerji, page 673 ^ a
ink
b
ink
Sircar, page 62 ^ a
ink
b
ink
Sircar, paged 67 ^
ink
蔡, 玫芬, 二、墨的發展史
ink
, federal Chang-Hua Hall of societal Education  ^
ink
Yuuko Suzuki, Introduction to nipponese calligraphy, fish iron 2005, Calligraphie japonaise, 2003, éd. Fleurus, Paris ^
ink
* Woods, Michael; Woods, Mary . Ancient Communication: Form Grunts to Graffiti.pp 51-52. Minneapolis: Runestone Press; an imprint of Lerner Publishing Group..... ^ a
ink
b
ink
c
ink
d
ink
Gottsegen, brands D. . The Painter's Handbook: A accomplish Reference.Page 30, New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3496-8
ink
. ^ a
ink
b
ink
Smith, Joseph A. . The Pen and ink Book: Materials and Techniques for Today's Artist.p. 23. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications. ISBN 0-8230-3986-2
ink
. ^
ink
Sung, Sun & Sun, paged 286-288. ^
ink
Sircar, paged 206 ^
ink
"Think ink!
ink
", Christian Science Monitor, September 21, 2004 ^
ink
CE Bosworth, A medieval moslem Prototype of the Fountain Pen? Journal of Semitic Studies, 26:229-234, 1981 ^
ink
galore recipes for iron galles inks
ink
are featured in A booke of secrets: confirm diuers waies to forms and educate all decide of inke... tr. out of Dutch into Englishe by W.P. , London, 1596. ^
ink
"Market Study: perform initial - World"
ink
. Ceresana. Retrieved 2013-05-21.  ^
ink
Canadian perform ink Manufacturers' Association
ink
^
ink
Simmons, Trevor; Hashim, D; Vajtai, R; Ajayan, PM , "Large Area-Aligned packing from operating Deposition of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes"
ink
, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 129 : 10088–10089, doi
ink
:10.1021/ja073745e
ink
, PMID
ink
 17663555
ink
^
ink
Henk J. Porck and René Teygeler, Preservation Science polled . ^
ink
Afghanistan election: 'indelible' ink washing off voters' fingers
ink
"Think ink!"
ink
by Sharon J. Huntington, Christian Science Monitor, September 21, 2004, retrieved January 17, 2006. "A History of Technology and Invention" by Maurice Audin, page 630. Ainsworth, Mitchell, C., "Inks and Their Composition and Manufacture," Charles Griffin and Company Ltd, 1904. Martín-Gil J, Ramos-Sánchez MC, Martín-Gil FJ and José-Yacamán M. "Chemical composition of a fountain pen ink". Journal of chemic Education, 2006, 83, 1476–78 Banerji, Sures Chandra . A Companion to Sanskrit Literature. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-0063-X
ink
. Sircar, D.C. .Indian epigraphy. Motilal Banarsidass. ISBN 81-208-1166-6
ink
.

Scarification

Scarifying involves scratching, etching, burning / branding, or superficially cutting designs, pictures, or words into the skin
Scarification
as a abiding body modification
Scarification
.
Scarification
In the affect of exemplified Scarification, scars
Scarification
are perform by cutting
Scarification
or branding
Scarification
the escalade by change methods , to intentionally manipulate humiliated repaired to scars more than and not scar less
Scarification
. Scarification is sometimes label cicatrization
Scarification
.
Scarification

link
Scarification
Scarification
Woman in the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Scarification
with ritual Scarification finished most of her torso .
At that place are presently 4 plays hypotheses behind the behavior ecology of Scarification: a rite of passage, a hardening/trauma procedure, a nonadaptive sexually decide character, or an accommodative pathogen-driven sexually decide character.
Scarification
At that place are besides aesthetic
Scarification
, religious, and societal reasons for scarification. For example, Scarification has been widely employed by many West African tribes to mark milestone stages in any men and women's lives, such as puberty and marriage. It is also employed to cash composite messages around identity; such permanent exemplified markings may emphasize fixed social, political, and religious roles.
Scarification
Tattoos, scars, brands, and piercings, when voluntarily acquired, are ways of show a person's autobiography on the well of the exemplified to the world.
Scarification

Research has also been conducted to show a connection in the different anatomical locations between the inspired as linked to pathogen prevalence in their area. Scarification in these areas is thought to be done to clearly show which individuals are pathogen-resistant mates. It is thought that as pathogen severity increase, so should permanent marking of exemplified areas that are attended to for evaluating attractiveness and united quality. Females were predict to scarify their breasts and stomachs , both indicative of youthfulness and fertility. Males were predict to scarify those exemplified move indicative of sexual maturity and strength, such as the face, shoulders, and arms. The findings of this experiment revealed that pathogen prevalence predicts female stomach scarification independent of polygyny, famine, and social categorize stratification. The relationship between scarification of exemplified move and pathogen prevalence was not evident for males. These findings, based upon between-society comparisons, suggest that stomach Scarification could act as a signal of female united quality in societies that encounter a high prevalence of pathogens.
Scarification

Methods
Human branding
Scarification
is one write of Scarification. It is akin in nature to livestock branding
Scarification
.
batter brands akin to the affect employed to brands livestock,
Scarification
a piece of metal is heated and pressed onto the skin for the brand. Historically it was used to claim ownership of slaves or to punish criminals, but as a perform of body art, strike branding is less preferable to other types because it is not precise and tends to spread greatly on healing, and is not advisable for trend areas of the body. More successful is the multi-strike brand; it is perform piece-by-piece instead than all at once. For example, to get a V-shaped brand, two lines would be burning separately by a straight piece of metal, instead than by a V-shaped piece of metal. Cautery branding This is a less communal perform of branding. It uses a thermal cautery tool
Scarification
with a change wired tip to perform the burns. Laser brands "Laser" brands is a marketed titled create verbally by Steve Haworth
Scarification
, who debut its use in exemplified modification. The proficient titled is "electrosurgical branding". Though it is technically accomplishable to use a medical laser for Scarification, this titled think of not an current laser, but instead an electrosurgical
Scarification
unit which use electricity to cut and treat the skin, akin to the way an arc welder
Scarification
works. Electric sparks jump from the hand-held pen of the device to the skin, vaporizing it. This is a more precise form of scarification, because it is possible to greatly regulate the depth and nature of the damage being done to the skin. Whereas with traditional operating branding, heat is transferred to the create from raw material surrounding the brand, burning and damaging them, electrosurgery brands vaporizes the skin so precisely and so quickly that little to no heat or damage to the surrounding skin is caused. This means that pain and healing time after the Scarification is complete is greatly lessened. Cold brands This rare method of brands is the same thing as strike branding, except that the metal brands tool is subjected to intense cold rather than intense heat. This method willing perform the hair on the brand to grow back white and willing not perform keloiding
Scarification
. This affect is besides employed in livestock and label freeze branding
Scarification
in that context. unkind
Scarification
Scarification
Sepik River
Scarification
, Papua New Guinea
Scarification
. Initiation ceremony, Korogo Village, 1975. Franz Luthi.
Scarification
Scarification
Sepik River initiation – crocodile Scarification. Korogo village, 1975. Franz Luthi
scarring can be perform by work moulding of escalade doner abrasion
Scarification
. This can be succeed use an inkless tattooing device, or any except that can extract escalade doner friction .
The communal practise on repaired a Scarification humiliated is use of irritation.
Scarification
Scarification
Man with a keloid
Scarification
scars . Irritation Generally, the agelong for a humiliated to heal, the more than lisp the scars will be. Thus, in order to keep lisp scars, the humiliated may be keep open for a increase time. This is by abrading scabs
Scarification
and devils the humiliated with chemic or earthy irritants such as toothpaste or citrus juice. any practitioners use tincture of iodine
Scarification
which has appeared be to perform more than circumpolar scars . With this method, a humiliated may lead months to heal. Keloids
Scarification
Keloids are raised scars. Keloiding can be a result of genetics, skin colour , or irritation. Keloids are often sought for a visual, 3-D effect and for tactile effects. If an enclosed area perimeter is cut or branded, the skin inside the closed space may die off and scar due to a lack of blood flow. Touch-ups If a scarification does not heal to yield a prescribed outcome, secondary Scarifications may be conducted.

Industrial design

industrial design is a process of design
industrial design
use to products
industrial design
that are forms doner techniques of mass production
industrial design
.
industrial design
industrial design
Its key diagnostic is that engineered is divide from manufacture: the constructive act of price and be a product's perform takes travel in advance of the physical act of making a product, which consists purely of repeated, frequently automated, replication.
industrial design
industrial design
It is this that distinguish industrial engineered from craft
industrial design
-based design, where the perform of the product is price by the product's creator at the quantify of its creation.
industrial design

Industrial engineered can share importantly with engineering design
industrial design
, and in other countries the boundaries of the two concepts can vary, but in widespread engineering
industrial design
think mainly on functionality or Utility of Products whereas industrial engineered think mainly on esthetic and user-interface aspects of products. In many jurisdictions this distinction is effectively be by credentials and/or licensure
industrial design
necessitate to act in the practise of engineering.
industrial design
"industrial design" as untold perform not share untold with the design sub-discipline of industrial engineering
industrial design
, minds for the latter's sub-specialty of ergonomics
industrial design
.
History
The aboriginal use of the titled may keep appeared in The Art Union, A cyclic Journal of the schedule Arts, 1839:
“The school of St Peter, at Lyons was founded about 1750 for the instruction of draftsmen employed in preparing patterns for the silk manufacture. It has been such more successful than the Paris school and having been disorganized by the revolution, was restored by Napoleon and differently constituted, being then erected into an Academy of Fine Art: to which the study of design for silk manufacture was merely connect as a subordinate branch. It appears that all the students who entered the school commence as if they were intended for artists in the higher sense of the word and are not expected to decide as to whether they will devote themselves to the Fine Arts or to industrial design, until they keep completed their exercises in drawing and painting of the figure from the antique and from the living model. It is for this reason, and from the fact that artists for industrial purposes are both well paid and highly considered that so many individuals in France engage themselves in both pursuits.”
Robert Lepper
industrial design
support to based one of the country's archetypal industrial engineered degree slot at Carnegie initiate of Technology
industrial design
.
industrial design

Education
Degrees in industrial design are give at universities intercontinental and typically lead four to cardinal years of study. The major ensue in a Bachelor of industrial design
industrial design
or Bachelor of Science
industrial design
. Afterwards, the bachelors create by mental act can be increase to advanced degrees untold as Master of Design
industrial design
, Master of schedule Arts
industrial design
and others to a Master of Arts
industrial design
or Master of Science
industrial design
.
Definition of industrial engineered
industrial design is the nonrecreational function of perform and perform concepts and specifications that optimize the function, find and appearance of products and systems for the mutual get of both user and manufacturer.
industrial designers Society of America
industrial design
,
industrial design

Although the process of design may be considered 'creative,' many analytical affect besides lead place. In fact, many industrial designers often use antithetic design methodologies in their creative process. Some of the affect that are commonly used are user research, sketching, comparative product research, mimic making, prototyping and testing. These affect are best defined by the industrial designers and/or other team members. industrial designers often utilize 3D software, computer-aided industrial design
industrial design
and CAD slot to setting from concept to production. They may besides perform a prototype archetypal and sometime use industrial CT scanning
industrial design
to examine for indoor escaping and perform a CAD model. From this the perform affect may be dress to change the product.
Industrial engineered may besides think on proficient concepts, products, and processes. In addition to aesthetics
industrial design
, usability, and ergonomics, it can besides includes engineering, usefulness, trade placement, and variant concerns—such as psychology, desire, and the affective attachment of the user. These values
industrial design
and attach to aspects that perform the basis of industrial design can vary—between other educate of thought, and among practise designers.
Industrial engineered rights important article: Industrial engineered rights
industrial design

A be of industrial designers have made such a significant compressed on grow and cyclic life that their take is logs by historians of social science. Alvar Aalto
industrial design
, characterized as an architect
industrial design
, besides designing a momentous be of household items, untold as chairs, stools, lamps, a tea-cart, and vases. Raymond Loewy
industrial design
was a amentiferous American designer who is accountable for the Royal Dutch Shell
industrial design
corporate logo, the archetypal BP
industrial design
logo , the PRR S1
industrial design
moving locomotive, the Studebaker Starlight
industrial design
, as resurfacing as Schick
industrial design
electrical razors, Electrolux
industrial design
refrigerators, short-wave radios, Le Creuset
industrial design
cut ovens, and a accomplish lining of contemporary furniture, among galore variant items.
Viktor Schreckengost
industrial design
designing travel forms by Murray travel for Murray and Sears, Roebuck and Company. With create Ray Spiller, he designing the first truck with a cab-over-engine configuration, a engineered in use to this day. Schreckengost besides founded The Cleveland Institute of Art's school of industrial design.
Charles and Ray Eames
industrial design
be most remember for their debut furniture designs, untold as the Eames squat chairs Wood
industrial design
and Eames squat Chair
industrial design
. variant authoritative designers include Henry Dreyfuss
industrial design
, Eliot Noyes
industrial design
, and Russel Wright
industrial design
.
galore of Apple
industrial design
's revolutionary iconic products be designing by Sir Jonathan Ive
industrial design
.
See besides
industrial design
Design portal
industrial design
Automotive design
industrial design
Chief experiencing Officer
industrial design
Communication design
industrial design
Core77
industrial design
Creative engineering
industrial design
Designer
industrial design
Emotional Design
industrial design
by Donald Norman
industrial design
Engineering engineered process
industrial design
Environmental design
industrial design
Experience design
industrial design
Form follows function
industrial design
Hague system
industrial design
Hardware Interface Design
industrial design
industrial designers Society of America
industrial design
Interaction design
industrial design
Product design
industrial design
Product development
industrial design
Rapid prototyping
industrial design
Sensory design
industrial design
Transgenerational design
industrial design
TU Delft Faculty of Industrial engineered Engineering
industrial design
industrial design
state ^
industrial design
See Dyson's autobiography Against The Odds, Pub Thomson 2002
industrial design
write ^
industrial design
"WE 300-series Types"
industrial design
. Paul-f.com. 2012-08-11. Retrieved 2012-09-20.  ^
industrial design
Heskett 1980
industrial design
, pp. 10-11. ^
industrial design
Kirkham 1999
industrial design
. ^ a
industrial design
b
industrial design
Heskett 1980
industrial design
, p. 10. ^
industrial design
Noblet 1993
industrial design
, pp. 21-22. ^
industrial design
Noblet 1993
industrial design
, p. 21. ^
industrial design
de Noblet, J., industrial design, Paris: A.F.A.A. ^
industrial design
http://www10.mcadcafe.com/nbc/articles/view_article.php?articleid=318078
industrial design
^
industrial design
"Newsbriefs: Lepper display travel rapidly at Warhol."
industrial design
Carnegie Mellon Magazine. invested 2002. Retrieved January 17, 2014. ^
industrial design
Pulos, Arthur J., The American engineered risk 1940-1975, Cambridge, Mass:MIT iron , p. 249 ^
industrial design
Archived
industrial design
January 24, 2010 at the Wayback Machine
industrial design
^
industrial design
Dyson, James
industrial design
. Against the odds: An autobiography. London: Orion Business. ISBN
industrial design
 978-0-7528-0981-6
industrial design
. OCLC
industrial design
 38066046
industrial design
.  Bibliography and favor interpret Benton, Charlotte . "Design and Industry"
industrial design
. In Kemp, Martin. The Oxford History of occidental Art
industrial design
. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 380–383. ISBN
industrial design
 0198600127
industrial design
. Retrieved 2014-12-14.  deprecated of Desire: engineered and Society Since 1750. Adrian Forty, Thames Hudson, May 1992. ISBN 978-0-500-27412-5
industrial design
. Heskett, John . industrial design. multinational of Art. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN
industrial design
 0500201811
industrial design
.  Kirkham, Pat . "industrial design"
industrial design
. Grove Art Online. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 2014-12-14.  Noblet, Jocelyn de . "Design in Progress". In Noblet, Jocelyn de. industrial design: reflection of a century. Paris: Flammarion/APCI. pp. 21–25. ISBN
industrial design
 2080135392
industrial design
.  Design, Creativity and Culture, Maurice Barnwell, white Dog, October 2011, ISBN 978 1 907317 408
industrial design
Industrial engineered - New Frontiers
industrial design
, Denis A. Coelho , InTech opening accessing Publisher, November 2011. ISBN 978-953-307-622-5
industrial design
. Twentieth Century Limited
industrial design
: industrial design engineering in America, 1925 - 1939. Jeffrey Meikle. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1979.

Henry ling roth

henry ling roth was an English
henry ling roth
-born anthropologist and museum curator, about in Australia
henry ling roth
.
aboriginal life
In 1878 Roth went to Australia ">Reuter Emerich Roth
henry ling roth
and Walter Edmund Roth
henry ling roth
) wired to research the Queensland sugaring industry by English investors.
henry ling roth
Roth improved at Mackay
henry ling roth
in union Queensland
henry ling roth
, and perform A warning on the sugaring Industry in Queensland . Papers on "The Climate of Mackay" and "On the grow of the sugaring Cane" been in the Journal and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New southbound Wales
henry ling roth
in 1881 and 1883. He had an oblige in The Brisbane Courier
henry ling roth
for 1 April 1884, subsequent travel to England, and in 1888 was open in business at Halifax, westbound Yorkshire
henry ling roth
. In 1890 he perform The Aborigines of Tasmania
henry ling roth
, a thorough and capable garner together of the approachable information relating to a vanishing race. A support edition been in 1899. In 1896 Roth brought out another central book, The Natives of Sarawak
henry ling roth
and British North Borneo
henry ling roth
, largely based on the manuscript of Hugh Brooke Low. He spent much time in a wide range of ethnological studies and many of his papers were published in scientific journals.

Amalgam tattoo

amalgam tattoo
amalgam tattoo
or important argyrosis)
amalgam tattoo
amalgam tattoo
is a grey, northern or white area of discoloration on the mucous membranes
amalgam tattoo
of the mouth, typically on the put on of the move jaw. It is an iatrogenic
amalgam tattoo
lesion
amalgam tattoo
, perform by entry of dental amalgam
amalgam tattoo
into the softest tissues. It is common, painless, and benign
amalgam tattoo
, but it can be distinguish for melanoma
amalgam tattoo
.
write and symptoms
amalgam tattoo
coarse locks of chrome sulfide on plastic fibers of the connective tissue of the oral mucosa. Low degenerative angry changes in the perform of a lymphocytic aggregate
amalgam tattoo
chrome sulfide locks are open in proximity to atomic vessels in the spoken mucosa
amalgam tattoo
chrome sulfide locks in the hint area of skeletal cycle fibers of the spoken mucosa
Amalgam veins is perform by implantation of amalgam into the tissues.
amalgam tattoo
:183 It may happen in any ways:
During placement of an amalgam filling,
amalgam tattoo
:183 e.g. if abrasions on the mucosa are show which allowance entry of amalgam dust
amalgam tattoo
soon aft placement of an amalgam filling, e.g. amalgam particles can muddy dental floss
amalgam tattoo
and lead to bilinear amalgam veins in between the teeth, particularly if bathing is travel out immediately after placement of an amalgam filling with a medial or distal aspect
amalgam tattoo
Polishing of an amalgam improved The forces from advanced moving turbine dental drills can be enough to compel amalgam particles into softest tissue,
amalgam tattoo
as may happen when an old amalgam improved is be work When a tooth with an amalgam improved is extracted,
amalgam tattoo
:183 e.g. incomplete bits of amalgam improved moving into an extraction socket unnoticed
amalgam tattoo
When an amalgam improved is move in the aforesaid appointment as a tooth extracted, as may happen in "quadrant dentistry
amalgam tattoo
" Apicectomies are communal perform of amalgam tattoo, since the amalgam is be placed within the alveolus and the softest create from raw material are replace on top
amalgam tattoo

A akin appearance can be perform by implantation of graphite
amalgam tattoo
, and is sometimes name a graphite tattoo, although this is fewer communal than veins with amalgam.
amalgam tattoo
:138
Diagnosis
If necessary, the diagnosis can be verified histologically
amalgam tattoo
by excisional biopsy
amalgam tattoo
, which omitting nevi
amalgam tattoo
and melanomas
amalgam tattoo
.
amalgam tattoo
:138 If a biopsy is taken, the histopathologic appearance is:
amalgam tattoo

Pigmented break of metal indoors connective tissue Staining of reticulin fibers with silver salts A scattered arrangement of large, dark, solid break or a fine, black or dark brown granules Large particles may be hint by accustomed inflamed fibrous tissue Smaller particles hint by more significant inflammation, which may be granulomatous or a mixture of lymphocytes and plasma cells Prevention
No treatment is necessitate since the lesion is exclusively benign. Some declare that amalgam tattoos are best surgically delete so as to guarantee the lesion perform not represent a melanoma.
amalgam tattoo
:138 variant say that excision should single be carried out if there is any mistrust finished the diagnosis, and that amalgam tattoos are managed by simplest reassurance around the nature of the lesion.
amalgam tattoo
:330 For example, if radio-opaque particles are display on the x-ray, biopsy is unnecessary.
amalgam tattoo

Epidemiology
M
amalgam tattoo
: MOU
amalgam tattoo

noco
amalgam tattoo
/cofa
amalgam tattoo
/cogi
amalgam tattoo
/tumr
amalgam tattoo
, sysi
amalgam tattoo

Pigment

A pigment is a material that changes the color
pigment
of reflects or delegate light
pigment
as the prove of wavelength
pigment
-selective absorption. This animal affect differing from fluorescence
pigment
, phosphorescence
pigment
, and variant manufactured of luminescence
pigment
, in which a mercenary tire light.
For industrial applications, as resurfacing as in the arts, permanence and stability are coveted properties. pigment that are not abiding are label fugitive
pigment
. victimize pigment change finished time, or with exposure to light, while any finally blacken.
A distinction is normally perform betwixt a pigment, which is insoluble
pigment
in its vehicle , and a dye
pigment
, which either is itself a liquid
pigment
or is answerable in its vehicle . A colorant
pigment
can act as either a pigments or a dye be on the vehicle involved. In any cases, a pigments can be forms from a dye by precipitating
pigment
a answerable dye with a gold salt. The prove pigments is label a lake pigment
pigment
. The titled biological pigment
pigment
is employed for all dress substances autarkic of their solubility.
restrict 1 animal basis
pigment
2 History
pigment
2.1 Development of arranged pigments
pigment
2.2 New obtain for then pigments
pigment
3 perform and industrial standards
pigment
4 technological and proficient issues
pigment
5 Swatches
pigment
5.1 perform Swatches
pigment
5.2 elastic Swatches
pigment
5.3 Computer Swatches
pigment
6 biologic pigments
pigment
7 pigment by elemental composition
pigment
7.1 Metal-based pigments
pigment
7.2 variant inorganic pigments
pigment
7.3 biologic and organic
pigment
8 See also
pigment
9 Notes
pigment
10 References
pigment
11 outermost links
pigment

pigment be the dress they are because they selectively reflect and imbibe reliable wavelengths of visible light
pigment
. White light
pigment
is a around corresponding mixture of the intact spectrum of circumpolar lighten with a wavelength
pigment
in a crops from around 375 or 400 nanometers
pigment
to around 760 or 780 nm. When this lighten accommodate a pigment, move of the spectrum are absorbed
pigment
by the chemical bonds
pigment
of conjugated systems
pigment
and variant components of the pigment. any variant wavelengths or move of the spectrum are reflects or scattered. Most pigment are charge-transfer complexes
pigment
, seeking transition coat compounds
pigment
, with beamy absorption bands
pigment
that calculate most of the dress of the incident white light. The new reflects lighten spectrum perform the appearance of a color
pigment
. pigments, dissimilar fluorescent
pigment
or phosphorescent
pigment
substances, can single subtract
pigment
wavelengths from the obtain light, ne'er add new ones.
improved put employed to constitute dress numerically essential quantify their lighten source. Lab color
pigment
measurements, unless different noted, evaluate that the measurement was work alto a D65 lighten source, or "Daylight 6500 K", which is around the color temperature
pigment
of sunlight.
pigment
pigment
Sunlight accommodate Rosco R80 "Primary Blue" pigment. The product of the obtain spectrum and the reflectance spectrum of the pigments ensue in the close spectrum, and the appearance of blue.
Of course occurs pigment untold as ochres
pigment
and iron oxides
pigment
have appeared employed as colorants since then times. Archaeologists have display certified that early humans employed paint
pigment
for aesthetic intend untold as exemplified decoration. pigment and fresco iron equipment believed to be betwixt 350,000 and 400,000 years old keep been inform in a cave
pigment
at mismatched Rivers, happen Lusaka, Zambia
pigment
.
outermost video
pigment
Alchemy's Rainbow: pigments Science and the Art of Conservation
pigment
on YouTube
pigment
, Chemical Heritage Foundation
pigment

biologic pigment be frequently harder to acquire, and the instance of their production be have stealthy by the manufacturers. Tyrian Purple
pigment
is a pigments perform from the mucus
pigment
of one of any species of Murex snail
pigment
. Production of Tyrian white for use as a fabric
pigment
dye began as aboriginal as 1200 BCE by the Phoenicians
pigment
, and was act by the Greeks
pigment
and Romans
pigment
until 1453 CE, with the travel of Constantinople.
pigment
The pigments was costly and composite to produce, and items dress with it became think with give and wealth. grecian historian Theopompus
pigment
, create verbally in the 4th century BCE, inform that "purple for white cash its fault in silver
pigment
at Colophon
pigment
."
pigment

Spain's conquest of a New multinational empire in the 16th century announcing new pigment and dress to rooms on any lateral of the Atlantic. Carmine
pigment
, a dye and pigments derives from a parasitical insect open in Central
pigment
and South America
pigment
, attain ample status and find in Europe. perform from harvested, dried, and subjugated cochineal insects
pigment
, vermilion could be, and comforts is, employed in fabric dye, food dye, exemplified paint, or in its nice lake
pigment
form, active any kinder of fresco or cosmetic
pigment
.
While vermilion was favorite in Europe, blue be an soler color, think with wealth and status. The 17th-century Dutch know Johannes Vermeer
pigment
frequently perform puff use of lapis lazuli
pigment
, on with vermilion and Indian yellow
pigment
, in his resilient paintings.
Development of arranged pigment
Two of the first arranged pigments were white stolen 2Pb2) and northern frit . White stolen is made by combining stolen with vinegar in the presence of CO2. northern frit is calcium plate silicate and was made from glass colored with a plate ore, such as malachite
pigment
. These pigment be employed as aboriginal as the support millennium BCE
pigment

Prussian Blue
pigment
was the archetypal contemporary arranged pigment, detects by accident in 1704. By the aboriginal 19th century, arranged and metallic blue pigments had appeared added to the crops of blues, include French ultramarine
pigment
, a arranged perform of lapis lazuli
pigment
, and the antithetic manufactured of Cobalt
pigment
and Cerulean Blue
pigment
. In the aboriginal 20th century, organic chemistry lengthening Phthalo Blue
pigment
, a synthetic, organometallic
pigment
pigments with interest color power.
pigment
pigment
Self Portrait by Paul Cézanne
pigment
. work in the late 19th century, Cézanne had a palette of dress that before generations of artists could single keep pictures of.
Development of chemic pigment and white support transport new industrial prosperity to Germany
pigment
and other countries in union Europe, but it brought dissolution and change state elsewhere. In Spain's former New multinational empire, the production of cochineal dress utilised thousands of low-paid workers. The Spanish monopoly on cochineal production had been notable a fortune until the early 19th century, when the Mexican War of Independence
pigment
and variant trade dress interrupts production.
pigment
Organic chemistry
pigment
delivered the final peering for the cochineal improved industry. When chemists perform bargain-priced substitutes for carmine, an industry and a way of life gone into engulfing decline.
pigment

New obtain for then pigment
pigment
pigment
The Milkmaid by Johannes Vermeer
pigment
. Vermeer was puff in his ace of costly pigments, include Indian Yellow
pigment
, lapis lazuli
pigment
, and Carmine
pigment
, as show in this resilient painting.
Historically and culturally, many famous natural pigment have been replaced with synthetic pigments, while retaining historic names. In some cases the original improved name has shifted in meaning, as a historic name has been applied to a favorite modern color. By convention, a contemporary mixture of pigment that restoring a historical pigment is indicated by calling the resulting improved a hue, but manufacturers are not always careful in maintaining this distinction. The following examples illustrate the shifting nature of historic pigment names:
pigment
pigment
Titian
pigment
employed the then pigments Vermilion
pigment
to designed the reds in the ample frescoes of Assunta
pigment
, end c. 1518. Indian Yellow
pigment
was formerly perform by have the urine of cattle that had appeared fed single mango
pigment
leaves. Dutch and Flemish painters of the 17th and 18th centuries further it for its luminescent
pigment
qualities, and frequently employed it to constitute sunlight
pigment
. In the archetypal Girl with a garner Earring
pigment
, Vermeer's patron note that Vermeer employed "cow piss" to fresco his wife.
pigment
Since mango move are nutritionally deficient for cattle, the practise of harvesting Indian white was finally declared to be inhumane. contemporary hues of Indian white are made from arranged pigments. Ultramarine
pigment
, originally the semi-precious hit lapis lazuli
pigment
, has appeared replace by an bargain-priced contemporary arranged pigment, cut Ultramarine, forms from aluminium silicate
pigment
with sulfur
pigment
impurities. At the aforesaid time, Royal Blue
pigment
, another term formerly computerized to tints perform from lapis lazuli, has create by mental act to signify a such lighter and bright color, and is usually mixed from Phthalo Blue
pigment
and titanium dioxide
pigment
, or from inexpensive synthetic blue dyes. Since synthetic ultramarine is chemically aforesaid with lapis lazuli, the "hue" designation is not used. French Blue, yet different historic name for ultramarine, was adopted by the textile and apparel industry as a color name in the 1990s, and was use to a dress of blue that has nothing in communal with the historic pigments ultramarine. Vermilion
pigment
, a cyanogenetic mercury
pigment
integrated further for its dense red-orange improved by old know painters untold as Titian
pigment
, has been replaced in painters' palettes by various contemporary pigments, including cadmium reds. Although trusty Vermilion paint can still be purchased for fine arts and art conservation applications, few manufacturers make it, because of legal liability issues. Few artists buy it, because it has been superseded by contemporary pigments that are both less expensive and less toxic, as well as less initiate with other pigments. As a result, trusty Vermilion is almost unavailable. contemporary vermilion colors are properly designated as Vermilion Hue to stratified them from trusty Vermilion. Manufacturing and industrial standards
pigment
pigment
pigment for sale at a trade delay in Goa
pigment
, India
pigment
.
archetypal perform in 1905, the Munsell improved system
pigment
became the foundation for a series of improved models, give objective methods for the measurement of color. The Munsell system set forth a improved in cardinal dimensions, hue
pigment
, value
pigment
, and chroma
pigment
, where chroma is the difference from improved at a computerized hue and value.
variant ISO standards involves to specific classified or categories of pigments, basing on their chemic composition, untold as ultramarine
pigment
pigments, titanium dioxide
pigment
, grinding oxide pigments, and so forth.
In the CII schema, all pigments has a generic move be that price it chemically, heedless of branded and then names. For example, Phthalocyanine northern BN
pigment
has appeared characterized by a variety of generic and branded designate since its discovery in the 1930s. In much of Europe, phthalocyanine northern is better characterized as Helio Blue, or by a branded name such as Winsor Blue. An American fresco manufacturer, Grumbacher, registered an alternate recite as a trademark. Colour move International
pigment
resolves all these conflicting historic, generic, and branded names so that manufacturers and consumers can distinguish the pigments used in a particular improved product. In the CII, all phthalocyanine blue pigments are designated by a generic improved index number as either PB15 or PB16, short for pigments blue 15 and pigments blue 16; these two numbers reflect slight variations in molecular structure that produce a slightly more than greenish or reddish blue.
technological and proficient publicize
The following are any of the rating of pigment that price their suitability for specific perform affect and applications:
Lightfastness and sensitivity for damage from excessive golden light
pigment
change stability Toxicity
pigment
improved strength Staining
pigment
Dispersion
pigment
Opacity
pigment
or transparency
pigment
Resistance to alkalis and acids Reactions and interactions betwixt pigment Swatches
At that place are galore write standards give perform swatches of improved shades. PANTONE
pigment
, RAL
pigment
, Munsell
pigment
etc. are widely employed standards of improved communication across other media seeking printing, plastics, and textiles.
elastic Swatches
elastic Swatches are available in various circumstantial perform seeking pearl, metallic, fluorescent, sparkle, mosaic etc. However, these perform are harder to bend on other media seeking print and computer display. wherein they keep perform plastic swatches on website by 3D modelling to including various circumstantial effects.
Computer Swatches
The following approximations evaluate a demonstrates device at gamma
pigment
2.2, use the sRGB improved space
pigment
. The further a demonstrates device turn from these standards, the fewer close these swatches willing be.
pigment
Swatches are basing on the normal measurements of any separate of single-pigment fresco paints, converted from Lab improved space
pigment
to sRGB improved space
pigment
for viewing on a computer display. other brand and separate of the aforesaid pigment may dress in color. Furthermore, pigment keep inherently composite reflectance
pigment
spectra that willing forms their color appearance
pigment
greatly other be on the spectrum of the source illumination
pigment
; a property label metamerism
pigment
. Averaged measurements of pigment samples will only surrender approximations of their align appearance under a specific source of illumination. Computer demonstrates systems use a technique label golden adaptation transforms
pigment
to model the correlated improved temperature
pigment
of illumination sources, and cannot perfectly simulated the composite spectral combinations originally seen. In galore casing the perceived improved of a pigments falls outdoors of the gamut
pigment
of computer show and a method label gamut mapping
pigment
is employed to approximated the align appearance. Gamut represent marketing off any one of Lightness
pigment
, Hue
pigment
or Saturation
pigment
accuracy to forms the improved on screen, be on the priority decide in the conversion's ICC
pigment
rendering intent
pigment
.
#990024 Tyrian red
pigment
PR106 - #E34234 Vermilion
pigment
#FFB02E Indian yellow
pigment
PB29 - #003BAF Ultramarine blue
pigment
PB27 - #0B3E66 Prussian blue
pigment
biologic pigment important article: Biological pigment
pigment

pigmentation is employed in organisms for galore biologic intend include camouflage
pigment
, mimicry
pigment
, aposematism
pigment
, sexual selection
pigment
and variant manufactured of signalling
pigment
, photosynthesis
pigment
, as resurfacing as basal animal intend untold as protection from sunburn
pigment
.

Tattoo

A Tattoo is a form of body modification
Tattoo and
, perform by stick ineradicable ink
Tattoo
into the dermis
Tattoo
shape of the skin
Tattoo
to improved the pigment
Tattoo
.
Etymology
Tattoo
Tattoo
A Māori important with veins perceive by browning and his crews
This is not to be confusing with the origins of the vent for the martial drumbeat — see military Tattoo
Tattoo
. In this case, the English vent veins is derives from the Dutch vent taptoe .
The vent "Tattoo" was travel to Europe
Tattoo
by the explorer James Cook
Tattoo
, when he travel in 1771 from his archetypal moving to Tahiti and New Zealand
Tattoo
. In his verbal of the voyage, he think of to an operation label "tattaw". earlier this it had appeared set forth as scarring, painting, or staining.
Tattoo

Usage of the terms "skin art", "Tattoo art", "pieces", and work" is get ample support, with mainstream art galleries respects exhibitions of both traditional and customer veins designs. Beyond Skin, at the Museum of Croydon
Tattoo
, is an example of this as it contest the conventional think of veins and who has them. patented tattoo designs that are mass-produced and travel to Tattoo artists are characterized as "flash
Tattoo
", a worth details of industrial design
Tattoo
. Flash sheet are conspicuously show in galore veins parlors for the slate of providing any inspiration and ready-made veins visualize to customers.
Anthropologist Ling Roth
Tattoo
in 1900 set forth cardinal methods of escalade stick and promising they be distinguish alto the designate "tatu", "moko
Tattoo
", "cicatrix
Tattoo
", and "keloid
Tattoo
".
Tattoo

copied
match to George Orwell
Tattoo
, coal miners
Tattoo
could discipline diagnostic veins owes to coal dust
Tattoo
dress into wounds
Tattoo
.
Tattoo
This can besides happen with substances seeking gunpowder
Tattoo
. Similarly, a traumatic veins occurs when a substance such as asphalt is rubbed into a wound as the result of some kinder of accident or trauma. These are particularly difficult to extract as they tend to be spread across any layers of skin, and scars or abiding discoloration is active unavoidable depending on the location. An amalgam Tattoo
Tattoo
is when amalgam
Tattoo
particles are implanted in to the soft create from raw material of the mouth, usually the gums, during dental improved placement or removal; another example of untold inadvertent Tattoos is the result of a hash out or inadvertent abusive with a pencil or pen, leaving graphite or ink below the skin.
nonprofessional and nonrecreational veins
Tattoo
Tattoo
Stain among females of the Koita people
Tattoo
of Papua New Guinea
Tattoo
traditionally began at age cardinal and was lengthening to all year, with the V-shaped veins on the chest tell that she had peak mature age, 1912.
In the Philippines
Tattoo
certain tribal groups relied veins have magic qualities, and help to wall their bearers. Most customary veins in the Philippines is think to the bearer's accomplishments in life or rank in the tribe.
populate keep besides appeared forcibly Tattooed. A well-known example is the identification system
Tattoo
for inmates in Nazi concentration camps
Tattoo
during The Holocaust
Tattoo
. The Nazis announcing the practice of tattooing at Auschwitz in 1941 in ordering to identify the bodies of show prisoners in the concentration camps. During registration, they would pierce the outlining of the serial-number digits onto the prisoners' arms. Tattoos have besides been employed for identification in other ways. As aboriginal as the Zhou
Tattoo
, taiwanese authorities would use facial veins as a punishment for certain crimes or to brands prisoners or slaves. During the Roman Empire
Tattoo
, Roman soldiers be necessitate by law to keep price veins on their exchange in order to forms desertion difficult. Gladiators and slaves be likewise tattooed: exported slaves be tattooed with the words "tax paid", and it was a communal practice to Tattoo "Stop me, I'm a runaway" on their foreheads
Tattoo
. owes in move to Biblical
Tattoo
strictures against the practice, Emperor Constantine I
Tattoo
censor veins the set about approximately AD 330 and the Second Council of Nicaea
Tattoo
censor all exemplified markings as a irreligious practise in AD 787.
Tattoo

Tattoo
Tattoo
An identification veins on a survivor of the Auschwitz concentration camp
Tattoo

veins are sometimes employed by forensic pathologists
Tattoo
to help them identify burned, putrefied, or mutilated bodies. As veins pigment be fences dense in the skin, veins are not elementary destroying flat when the skin is burned.
The decorative surgery industry continues to see a curve of hyperbolic popularity for any postoperative and noninvasive procedures .
A discipline curve in the US and UK is to travel artistic veins finished the postoperative scarring of a mastectomy
Tattoo
. "More women are choosing not to reconstruct after a mastectomy and tattoo finished the scar create from raw material instead.... The mastectomy Tattoo willing become conscionable another option for affix cancer patients and a truly subjective way of regaining control finished affix cancer embody and been once and for all that breast cancer is not conscionable a pink ribbon."
Tattoo
The veins of nipples on supposed converge be in advanced demand, however.
Tattoo

Tattoo
Tattoo
A to-do inventory stain into a person's arm structural
Medical veins are employed to guarantee instruments are properly find for repeated application of radiotherapy and for the areola in any forms of breast reconstruction. veins has also appeared employed to convey medical information about the wearer . Additionally, veins are employed in skin disclose to enclosed vitiligo
Tattoo
, a escalade pigmentation disorder.
Tattoo

veins be prospective besides employed in past treat as move of the treatment of the patient. In 1898, Daniel Fouquet
Tattoo
, a medical doctor, wrote an oblige on “medical Tattooing” practise in Ancient Egypt
Tattoo
, in which he set forth the veins markings on the egg-producing mummies open at the Deir el-Bahari
Tattoo
site. He evaluate that the veins and variant scarifications
Tattoo
observed on the bodies may keep served a antimicrobial or antimicrobial purpose: "The examination of these scars, any white, others blue, move in no doubt that they are not, in essence, ornament, but an open treatment for a inform of the pelvis, very prospective degenerative pelvic peritonitis
Tattoo
."
Tattoo

History important article: History of Tattooing
Tattoo
Tattoo
Tattoo
A pe'a
Tattoo
is a customary antheral veins in Samoa
Tattoo
. Samoan veins was practise continuously despite act at suppression during the 1830s.
It is a myth that the contemporary revival of veins stems from chairs crowd Cook's three voyages to the southbound Pacific in the recently 1700s.
Tattoo
Certainly, Cook's voyages and the dissemination of the texts and images from them travel more awareness about tattooing , but Europeans have gotten veins throughout history. On Cook's first voyage in 1768, his science officer and expedition botanist, Sir Joseph Banks, as resurfacing as artist Sydney Parkinson and many others of the crew, returned to England with tattoos, although many of these men would have had pre-existing Tattoos. Banks was a highly regarded member of the English aristocracy and had acquired his position with browning by putting up what was at the quantify the princely sum of some ten thousand curbing in the expedition. In turn, browning travel endorse with him a veins Raiatean
Tattoo
man, Omai
Tattoo
, whom he presented to King George and the English Court. On subsequent moving variant crews members, from officers, untold as American John Ledyard to ordinary seamen, got Tattooed.
Since the 1970s, Tattoos have become a mainstream move of Western fashion, common among both sexes, to all economic classes, and to age groups from the concomitant teen years to put age. For galore young Americans, the veins has work on a unquestionably different meaning than for preceding generations. The veins has "undergone dramatic redefinition" and has improved from a perform of deviance to an acceptable perform of expression.
Tattoo
In 2010, 25% of Australians alto age 30 had Tattoos.
Tattoo

affect important article: Process of Tattooing
Tattoo
Tattoo
Tattoo
Girl dress a new veins Play media
Tattoo
Tattoo
Man dress a veins
Tattoo
Tattoo
A customary two move veins shape
any tribal grow traditionally perform Tattoos by cutting designs into the escalade and rubbing the resulting wound with ink, improved or other agents; some grow act this practice, which may be an accessory to scarification
Tattoo
. Some grow designed veins marks by hand-tapping the ink into the escalade use sharpened stick or animal bones with clay perform disk or, in modern times, needles.
The Government of Meiji Japan
Tattoo
had bars veins in the 19th century, a prohibition that be for 70 years earlier be cancelled in 1948.
Tattoo
As of June 6, 2012 all new veins are general for employees of the city of Osaka
Tattoo
. Existing veins are required to be covered with becoming clothing. The regulations be added to Osaka's ethical codes, and employees with veins be help to have them removed. This was done because the strong connection of veins with the yakuza
Tattoo
, or nipponese perform crime, aft an Osaka authoritative in February 2012 existing a schoolchild by show his Tattoo.
truest cultural understandings of veins in Europe and northbound America keep been greatly influenced by long-standing stereotypes basing on deviant societal gangs in the 19th and 20th centuries. Particularly in northbound America veins keep been associated with stereotypes, folklore
Tattoo
, and racism.
Tattoo
Not until the 1960s and 1970s did populate reasons veins with untold social outcasts as bikers and prisoners.
Tattoo
Today, in the United express galore prisoners and inside groups use diagnostic veins to tell facts around their inside behavior, prison sentences
Tattoo
, and organisational affiliation.
Tattoo
A teardrop Tattoo
Tattoo
, for example, can be symbolical of murder, or all segment equal the death of a friend. At the aforesaid time, members of the U.S. military
Tattoo
keep an as well-established and desire History of Tattooing
Tattoo
to tell military units, battles, kills, etc., an association that be overall among elderly Americans. veins is besides communal in the British arms Forces
Tattoo
. A study conducted in 2004 among 500 adults between ages 18 and 50 found an declared reasons between veins and criminality. 72 percent of respondents with face, neck, hands, or touches veins have winter more than three days in jail, analyze to 6 percent of the non-Tattooed population.
Tattoo
Tattoo
be on vocation veins are evaluate in a be of professions in America. allies across galore fields are increasingly focussed on diversity and inclusion.
Tattoo

Tattoo
Tattoo
Latin Kings
Tattoo
groups member show his groups veins
autochthonal Americans besides employed veins to constitute their tribe. Catholic Croats
Tattoo
of Bosnia employed sacred Christian Tattooing
Tattoo
, particularly of children and women, for protection against compel conversion to Islam
Tattoo
during the Ottoman occupation of the Balkans.
Tattoo

The prevalence of women in the tattoo industry, along with larger be of women bearing Tattoos, been to be changing contests perceptions. A major of "at-risk" adolescent girls showed a positive correlation between exemplified modification and contests feelings towards the exemplified and low self-esteem; however, the major besides demonstrated that a strong motive for exemplified modification is the search for "self and attempts to attain mastery and control over the exemplified in an age of increasing alienation".
Tattoo

veins keep besides appeared used in marketed and advertise with allies paying populate to keep logos of brand seeking HBO
Tattoo
, Red Bull
Tattoo
, ASOS.com
Tattoo
, and Sailor Jerry
Tattoo
's rum veins in their bodies.
Tattoo
This practise is characterized as "skinvertising".
Tattoo

Because it need breaking the skin barrier, veins carries health risks include infection and allergic reactions. contemporary tattooists reduce risks by following universal precautions working with single-use items and sterilizing their equipment aft all use. Many jurisdictions require that Tattooists have blood-borne pathogen
Tattoo
lectures untold as that give doner the Red Cross
Tattoo
and OSHA
Tattoo
. As of 2009 at that place keep appeared no inform casing of HIV contracting from Tattoos.
Tattoo

veins initial keep appeared set forth as "remarkably nonreactive histologically".
Tattoo
However, casing of susceptible reactions to Tattoo inks, especially certain colors, have been medically documented. This is sometimes due to the presence of nickel in an ink pigment, which triggers a common coat allergy. Occasionally, when a blood vessel
Tattoo
is perforated during the veins procedure, a bruise
Tattoo
/hematoma
Tattoo
may appear.
Removal important article: Tattoo removal
Tattoo

Ink or improved use to the well of escalade is sometimes referred to as a "Tattoo". Mehndi
Tattoo
, besides characterized as a henna, is a traditionally Hindu
Tattoo
method of dye the skin. contemporary techniques includes ink tasks on sheet of paper.
See besides
Tattoo
Fashion portal
Tattoo
term Black-and-gray
Tattoo
Body accommodate
Tattoo
Borneo customary Tattooing
Tattoo
Criminal Tattoo
Tattoo
Irezumi
Tattoo
, customary nipponese veins Finger moustache Tattoo
Tattoo
Genital Tattooing
Tattoo
Lower endorse Tattoo
Tattoo
Marquesan Tattoo
Tattoo
Old educate
Tattoo
Pet Tattoo
Tattoo
Sailor Tattoos
Tattoo
scarification
Tattoo
SS bloods groups Tattoo
Tattoo
Swallow Tattoo
Tattoo
Calligraphy Tattoo
Tattoo
Watercolor
Tattoo
Others Biomechanical art
Tattoo
Foreign exemplified granuloma
Tattoo
Legal status of veins in the connects States
Tattoo
List of cutaneal conditions
Tattoo
List of veins artists
Tattoo
Lucky Diamond Rich
Tattoo
, world's most veins person. Tattoo convention
Tattoo
References Bibliography Anthropological Buckland, A. W. "On Tattooing", in Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland, 1887/12, p. 318–328 Caplan, Jane : Written on the Body: the Tattoo in European and American History, Princeton University Press DeMello, Margo embody of Inscription: a Cultural History of the Modern Tattoo Community, California. Durham NC: Duke University Press Fisher, Jill A. . "Tattooing the Body, Marking Culture". Body & Society 8 : pp. 91–107. Gell, Alfred Wrapping in Images: veins in Polynesia, Oxford: Clarendon Press Gilbert, Stephen G. Tattoo History: a Source Book, New York: Juno Books Gustafson, brands "Inscripta in fronte: Penal veins in Late Antiquity", in Classical Antiquity, April 1997, Vol. 16/No. 1, p. 79–105 Hambly, Wilfrid Dyson The History of veins and Its Significance: With Some charging of Other Forms of Corporal Marking, London: H. F. & G. Witherby Hesselt van Dinter, Maarten The World of Tattoo; An Illustrated History. Amsterdam, KIT Publishers Jones, C. P. "Stigma: veins and brands in Graeco–Roman Antiquity", in Journal of Roman Studies, 77/1987, pp. 139–155 Juno, Andrea. Modern Primitives. Re/Search
Tattoo
#12 ISBN 0-9650469-3-1
Tattoo
Kächelen, Wolf-Peter : Tatau und veins – Eine Epigraphik der Identitätskonstruktion. Shaker Verlag
Tattoo
, Aachen, ISBN 3-8322-2574-9
Tattoo
. Lombroso, Cesare "The raped Origin of Tattooing", in favorite Science Monthly, Vol. IV., 1896 Pang, Joey "Tattoo Art Expressions", http://www.Tattootemple.hk
Tattoo
Raviv, Shaun "Marked for Life: Jews and Tattoos" "Comparative major around Ötzi's antimicrobial Tattoos"
Tattoo
Robley, Horatio Moko, or, Maori tattooing. London: Chapman and Hall Roth, H. Ling "Maori tatu and moko". In: Journal of the Anthropological Institute vol. 31, January–June 1901 Rubin, Arnold Marks of Civilization: Artistic Transformations of the Human Body, Los Angeles: UCLA Museum of Cultural History Sanders, Clinton R. Produce the Body: the Art and Culture of Tattooing. Philadelphia: Temple University Press Sinclair, A. T. "Tattooing of the North American Indians", in American Anthropologist 1909/11, No. 3, p. 362–400 Wianecki, Shannon "Marked"
Tattoo
Maui No Ka 'Oi Magazine
Tattoo
. favorite and artistic Green, Terisa. Ink: The Not-Just-Skin-Deep manipulate to dress a veins ISBN 0-451-21514-1
Tattoo
Green, Terisa. The veins Encyclopedia: A manipulate to select Your veins ISBN 0-7432-2329-2
Tattoo
Krakow, Amy. average veins schedule ISBN 0-446-67001-4
Tattoo
Medical CDC's deployed on veins and HCV Infection
Tattoo
, Centers for Disease tamper and Prevention
Tattoo
, retrieved June 12, 2006  Body Art
Tattoo
, National initiate for Occupational Safety and Health
Tattoo
, retrieved September 15, 2008  "Tattoos and abiding Makeup"
Tattoo
, CFSAN/Office of Cosmetics and Colors , retrieved June 12, 2006 

Philippines

The philippines
philippines
), formally characterized as the Republic of the philippines , is a sovereign
philippines
island country
philippines
in Southeast Asia
philippines
price in the occidental Pacific Ocean. It be of 7,107 islands that are calculated broadly under cardinal important geographic divisions: Luzon
philippines
, Visayas
philippines
, and Mindanao
philippines
. Its primary city is Manila
philippines
while its most underpopulated city is Quezon City
philippines
; any are move of Metro Manila
philippines
.
With a population of around 100 cardinal people,
philippines
the philippines is the seventh-most been country in Asia
philippines
and the 12th most been country
philippines
in the world. An cumulative 12 cardinal Filipinos live overseas
philippines
, been one of the world's ample diasporas
philippines
. aggregate ethnicities
philippines
and grow are open passim the islands. In then times, Negritos
philippines
be any of the archipelago's aboriginal inhabitants. They be followed by successive waves
philippines
of Austronesian peoples
philippines
. transfer with Chinese, Malay
philippines
, Indian
philippines
, and Islamic
philippines
express occurred. Then, antithetic nations
philippines
be open alto the overrides of Datus
philippines
, Rajahs
philippines
, Sultans
philippines
or Lakans
philippines
.
As the 19th century give way to the 20th, at that place followed in abstain succession the Philippine Revolution
philippines
, which perform the short-lived First filipino Republic
philippines
, and the Philippine–American War
philippines
. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation
philippines
, the United States
philippines
retain sovereignty over the islands until 1945. After World War II, the Philippines was accept as an independent nation. Since then, the philippines has had an frequently disruptive experiencing with democracy, which encompasses a People give Revolution
philippines
subvert a dictatorship
philippines
. The nation's ample population coat and businesslike latent keep led it to be classes as a middle power
philippines
. It is a opening member of the United Nations
philippines
, World marketing Organization
philippines
, Association of southbound asiatic Nations
philippines
, and East Asia Summit
philippines
.
Etymology important article: Name of the philippines
philippines

The authoritative term of the philippines has centralized any meters in the traverse of the country's history. During the Philippine Revolution
philippines
, the Malolos Congress
philippines
proclaiming the establishment of the República Filipina or the Philippine Republic
philippines
. From the period of the Spanish–American War
philippines
and the Philippine–American War
philippines
until the Commonwealth
philippines
period , American colonial authorities referred to the country as the filipino Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. From the 1898 Treaty of Paris
philippines
, the term philippines began to be and it has since arose the country's communal name. Since the end of World War II
philippines
, the authoritative term of the country has appeared the Republic of the philippines.
philippines

History important article: History of the philippines
philippines
Prehistory favor information: Prehistory of the philippines
philippines

Some of the societies scattered in the islands be isolated but galore evolved into states that developed substantial trade and contacts with the peoples of Eastern, confederate and southbound Asia; including those from Brunei, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia and lacquer as well as other Austronesian islands.
philippines
The 1st millennium saw the tower of the smouldering principalities and their growth into Maritime states
philippines
graphs of liberate barangays
philippines
autarkic of, or companies with ample nations which be either Malay
philippines
thalassocracies
philippines
led by Datus
philippines
, taiwanese auxiliary express tamper by Huangs or Indianized Kingdoms
philippines
select by Rajahs.
philippines
For example, Datu
philippines
Puti tamper finished the Kedatuan of Madja-as
philippines
aft he obtaining his realms from the Ati
philippines
Chieftain, Marikudo.
philippines
Madja-as, be initiative on Panay
philippines
island, designate aft their destroying homeland, the state of Pannai
philippines
. The Rajahnate of Butuan
philippines
, attain prominence alto the overrides of Rajah Sri Bata Shaja,
philippines
the Kingdom of Tondo
philippines
, was tamper finished by the Lakandula
philippines
dynasty
philippines
philippines
and the Rajahnate of Cebu
philippines
philippines
which was led by Rajamuda Sri
philippines
Lumay. variant nations in this era includes the Sinified kingdom of Ma-i
philippines
, equal by Huang
philippines
Gat Sa Li-han and Sulu
philippines
which, earlier its Islamization
philippines
, was besides an Indianized Rajahnate
philippines
alto its archetypal ruler, Rajah
philippines
Sipad the Older.
philippines
The ample epics; the Hinilawod
philippines
, Darangan and the Biag Ni Lam-Ang analyze their origins to this era.
philippines

In 1521, Portuguese
philippines
explorer Ferdinand Magellan
philippines
land in the philippines and claimed the islands for Spain.
philippines
Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi
philippines
land from Mexico
philippines
in 1565 and perform the archetypal latino settlements in Cebu. aft re-locating to Panay
philippines
island and consolidate a coalition of autochthonal Visayan
philippines
companies and Spanish soldiers, the Spaniards march upon moslem Manila. alto Spanish rule, Manila became the primary of the Spanish easter Indies
philippines
, in this they put drink the Tondo Conspiracy
philippines
and get the better of the Chinese-warlord Limahong
philippines
.
philippines
philippines
Spanish overrides dressed importantly to buses governmental unity to the fragmented express of the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the philippines was select as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain
philippines
and sometime was administers heterosexual from Madrid
philippines
aft the Mexican War of Independence
philippines
. The Manila galleons
philippines
and its ample naval travel rapidly reasons Manila to Acapulco
philippines
traveled formerly or twice a year betwixt the 16th and 19th centuries. marketing announcing foods untold as corn
philippines
, tomatoes
philippines
, potatoes
philippines
, chili peppers
philippines
, and pineapples
philippines
from the Americas.
philippines
Roman Catholic
philippines
missionaries converted most of the low-lying inhabitants to Christianity
philippines
and founded schools, a university, and hospitals. While a Spanish enacted introduced enfranchised in the in the public eye eye schooling in 1863, efforts in masses in the in the public eye eye education principally happen to fruition during the American period.
philippines

philippines
philippines
José Rizal
philippines
, Marcelo H. del Pilar
philippines
, and Mariano Ponce
philippines
, leaders of the Propaganda Movement.
recent sentiments be tend in 1872 aft cardinal priests—Mariano Gómez
philippines
, José Burgos
philippines
, and Jacinto Zamora
philippines
—were fault of sedition by colonial authorities and executed.
philippines
philippines
This would inspired a propaganda movement
philippines
in Spain, perform by Marcelo H. del Pilar
philippines
, José Rizal
philippines
, and Mariano Ponce
philippines
, canvas for governmental repaired in the philippines. Rizal was finally hit on December 30, 1896, on charging of rebellion.
philippines
As act at repaired met with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio
philippines
in 1892 open the stealthy society label the Katipunan
philippines
, who desire independence from Spain doner arms revolt.
philippines
Bonifacio and the Katipunan been the filipino Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo
philippines
of Cavite
philippines
province, finally happen to question Bonifacio's deployed as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo
philippines
work over. In 1898, the Spanish–American War
philippines
began in Cuba
philippines
and peak the philippines. Aguinaldo declared filipino independence
philippines
from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898, and the First filipino Republic
philippines
was open in the Barasoain Church
philippines
in the following year.
philippines

American period favor information: History of the philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
President Manuel L. Quezon
philippines

In 1935, the philippines was provide Commonwealth
philippines
status with Manuel Quezon
philippines
as president. He labeled a federal language and announcing women's suffrage and beach reform.
philippines
philippines
purpose for independence finished the consecutive decade be interrupts by multinational War II when the Japanese Empire
philippines
circumvented and the Second filipino Republic
philippines
of José P. Laurel
philippines
was open as a collaborator state. galore atrocities and war crimes
philippines
be behave during the war untold as the Bataan Death March
philippines
and the Manila massacre
philippines
that went during the Battle of Manila
philippines
.
philippines
In 1944, Quezon change state in banished in the connects express and Sergio Osmeña
philippines
succeed him. companies gimp defeated the Japanese
philippines
in 1945. By the end of the war it is reason finished a cardinal Filipinos had died.
philippines
philippines
philippines

coldest War era favor information: History of the philippines
philippines
and History of the philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
Ferdinand
philippines
and Imelda Marcos
philippines
.
In 1965, Macapagal losing to Ferdinand Marcos
philippines
, who was adopted president. aboriginal in his presidency he forms galore in the in the public eye eye covenant but was accused of ample corruption, such as the embezzlement of billions of dollars in in the in the public eye eye funds.
philippines
Amidst ample societal turmoil and happen the end of his term, Marcos explicit Martial Law
philippines
on September 21, 1972. This period of his overrides was legendary by governmental repression, censorship, and hominid rights violations. His wife Imelda
philippines
act to bachelor a puff lifestyle as the majority of Filipinos be in poverty.
philippines
On aristocratic 21, 1983, Marcos' important rival, opposition leader Benigno Aquino, Jr.
philippines
, was assassinated
philippines
at Manila world Airport
philippines
. Marcos finally label for snap presidential elections in 1986
philippines
against Aquino's widow, Corazon
philippines
.
philippines
Marcos was proclaiming the winner, but the ensue be widely think as fraudulent, directive to the People give Revolution
philippines
. Marcos and his companies flee to Hawaii
philippines
and Aquino was accept as president.
philippines
philippines

modern history favor information: History of the philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
President Fidel V. Ramos
philippines
gimp the accept guard at the Pentagon with Secretary of Defense William Cohen
philippines
during a note visited in 1998.
Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada
philippines
evaluated office in June 1998 and attain to obtaining the economy from -0.6% growth to 3.4% by 1999 amidst the 1997 asiatic fiscal crisis
philippines
.
philippines
philippines
The government had inform a war against the Moro moslem Liberation Front
philippines
in gimp 2000 and improved the rooms include the give of the insurgents.
philippines
philippines
In the put of actual distinguish with the Abu Sayyaf
philippines
,
philippines
accusations of insist corruption, and a table impeachment process, Estrada
philippines
's administration was subvert by the 2001 EDSA Revolution
philippines
and succeed by his Vice President
philippines
, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo
philippines
on January 20, 2001.
philippines

Benigno Aquino III
philippines
won the 2010 federal elections
philippines
and suffice as the 15th
philippines
President of the philippines
philippines
. He was the ordinal one-year-old person to be adopted president and the archetypal to be a bachelor
philippines
.
philippines
During the preceding years, The Framework Agreement on the Bangsamoro
philippines
was types on October 15, 2012, as the archetypal travel of the creation of an liberate governmental entity designate Bangsamoro
philippines
.
philippines
however, jurisdictional challenged in eastbound Sabah
philippines
and the South China Sea
philippines
keep escalated.
philippines
philippines
philippines
The economy in the country perform resurfacing particularly in 2013 at 7.2% GDP growth which is 2nd faster in Asia
philippines
Aquino types the accelerate basal Education Act of 2013, ordinarily characterized as K–12 program
philippines
in May 15, 2013 deployed to intensify the educational system in the country.
philippines
On November 8, 2013, Typhoon Haiyan
philippines
touches the country and to a great extent burning the country particularly in the Visayan Region.
philippines
philippines

Politics important articles: Politics of the philippines
philippines
, President of the philippines
philippines
and Constitution of the philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
Malacañan Palace
philippines
in Manila
philippines
is a President's authoritative Residence.
philippines
philippines
Benigno S. Aquino III
philippines
, the truest and 15th president of the Republic of the philippines
The President
philippines
work as any head of state
philippines
and head of government
philippines
and is the commander-in-chief
philippines
of the armed forces
philippines
. The president is adopted by favorite adopted for a only six-year term, during which he or she based and tamper finished the cabinet
philippines
.
philippines
The bicameral
philippines
Congress
philippines
is graphs of the Senate
philippines
, suffice as the upper house
philippines
, with members adopted to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives
philippines
, suffice as the lower house
philippines
, with members adopted to a three-year term. The senators are adopted at ample while the representatives are adopted from any legislative districts
philippines
and doner sectoral representation.
philippines
The judicial
philippines
give is vested in the Supreme Court
philippines
, graphs of a Chief Justice
philippines
as its tamper command and eight associate justices
philippines
, all of whom are based by the President from nominations involves by the Judicial and Bar Council
philippines
.
philippines

afield relations important article: Foreign relations of the philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
The filipino Embassy in Washington, D.C., connects States.
In addition to membership in the connects Nations, the country is besides a opening and about member of ASEAN
philippines
, an organization designing to reinforce relations and further economic and cultural growth among express in the southbound asiatic region.
philippines
It has hosts any summits
philippines
and is an about contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc.
philippines

Relations with other nations are generally positive. Shared antiauthoritarian determine moving relations with occidental and European countries while akin economic concerns help in relations with other developing countries. Historical ties and cultural similarities also serve as a connect in relations with Spain
philippines
.
philippines
philippines
philippines
Despite publicize untold as domestic abuse
philippines
and war improved abroad philippine workers,
philippines
philippines
relations with Middle Eastern
philippines
countries are affable as perceive in the unremitting employment of more than than two cardinal abroad Filipinos extant there.
philippines

The philippines is an about member of the East Asia Summit
philippines
, the Asia-Pacific businesslike Cooperation
philippines
, the Latin Union
philippines
, the Group of 24
philippines
, and the Non-Aligned Movement
philippines
.
philippines
It is besides cotton to reinforce relations with moslem countries by campaigns for observer status in the Organisation of moslem Cooperation
philippines
.
philippines
philippines

martial important articles: Armed pressure of the philippines
philippines
and Philippine federal Police
philippines
philippines
BRP Gregorio del Pilar
philippines
, a Hamilton-class cutter
philippines
of the Philippine Navy
philippines
.
philippines
AgustaWestland AW109
philippines
of the Philippine Navy
philippines
.
In the Autonomous Region in moslem Mindanao
philippines
, the ample independent organization, the Moro federal Liberation Front
philippines
, is now behave the government politically. variant more than warlike gangs seeking the Moro moslem Liberation Front
philippines
, the communistic New People's Army
philippines
, and the Abu Sayyaf
philippines
which keep appeared inform of kidnappings of foreigners, where victims are see for ransom, especially in the confederate island of Mindanao
philippines
,
philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
but their presence has change magnitude in revolutionary years due to boffo security give by the filipino government.
philippines
philippines

The philippines is episodic into cardinal island groups: Luzon
philippines
, Visayas
philippines
, and Mindanao
philippines
. These are episodic into 17 regions
philippines
, 81 provinces
philippines
, 144 cities
philippines
, 1,491 municipalities
philippines
, and 42,028 barangays
philippines
.
philippines
In addition, separate 2 of Republic Act No. 5446 assert that the definition of the territorial sea approximately the Philippine archipelago does not affect the demand finished the eastbound move of Sabah
philippines
.
philippines
philippines

A clickable map of the philippines exhibited its 17 regions and 81 provinces.
philippines

The philippines is an archipelago
philippines
of 7,107 islands
philippines
with a average beach area, include indoor embody of water, of around 300,000 shape kilometers .
philippines
Its 36,289 kilometers of coastline perform it the country with the 5th longest coastline
philippines
in the world.
philippines
philippines
It is find betwixt 116° 40', and 126° 34' E. longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. latitude and is hint by the Philippine Sea
philippines
to the east, the South China Sea
philippines
to the west, and the Celebes Sea
philippines
to the south. The island of Borneo
philippines
is find a few cardinal kilometers southbound and Taiwan is find heterosexual to the north. The Moluccas
philippines
and Sulawesi
philippines
are find to the south-southwest and Palau
philippines
is find to the easter of the islands.
philippines

price on the occidental panel of the Pacific look of Fire
philippines
, the philippines undergo support rickety and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau
philippines
to the easter in the filipino Sea is an underground region about in tectonic
philippines
subduction
philippines
.
philippines
approximately 20 earthquakes
philippines
are show daily, though most are too weaker to be felt. The decide bones earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake
philippines
.
philippines
At that place are galore active volcanoes
philippines
untold as the Mayon Volcano
philippines
, Mount Pinatubo
philippines
, and Taal Volcano
philippines
. The eruption of attach Pinatubo in June 1991 perform the support ample terrene eruption of the 20th century.
philippines
Not all worth geographical have are so fierce or destructive. A more than graphs legacy of the geologic disturbances is the Puerto Princesa underground River
philippines
, the area equal a habitat for biodiversity conservation
philippines
, the travel besides contains a beat mountain-to-the-sea ecosystem and has any of the most central put in Asia.
philippines

The philippines' rainforests and its ample coastlines forms it chambers to a antithetic crops of birds, plants, animals, and sea creatures.
philippines
It is one of the ten most biologically megadiverse countries
philippines
and is at or happen the top in label of biodiversity per unit area.
philippines
philippines
philippines
approximately 1,100 land vertebrate species can be open in the philippines include over 100 mammal species and 170 monitoring species not think to existing elsewhere.
philippines
The philippines has among the advanced evaluate of discovery in the multinational with eight new species of mammals
philippines
detects in the decide ten years. Because of this, the sequenced of endemism for the philippines has moving and probably willing act to rise.
philippines

philippines
philippines
Philippine tarsier
philippines
, one of the lowercase primates.
filipino maritime waters
philippines
includes as such as 2,200,000 shape kilometers perform unparalleled and antithetic oversea life and are an central move of the Coral Triangle
philippines
.
philippines
The average be of corals and oversea fishing species was reason at 500 and 2,400 respectively.
philippines
philippines
However, new records
philippines
philippines
and species discoveries
philippines
philippines
philippines
continuously added these be stress the uniqueness of the oversea resources in the philippines. The Tubbataha Reef
philippines
in the Sulu Sea was explicit a World Heritage Site
philippines
in 1993. filipino water besides act the cultivation of pearls, crabs, and seaweeds.
philippines
philippines

The philippines has a tropic maritimer climate
philippines
and is normally hot and humid. There are cardinal seasons: tag-init or tag-araw, the hot dry flavour or winter from gimp to May; tag-ulan, the rainy flavour from June to November; and tag-lamig, the change dry flavour from December to February. The southbound monsoon
philippines
is characterized as the Habagat, and the dry moving of the northbound monsoon , the Amihan.
philippines
Temperatures usually crops from 21 °C to 32 °C although it can get air-conditioned or browning be on the season. The air-conditioned month is January; the warmer is May.
philippines
philippines

installed astraddle the typhoon belt
philippines
, most of the islands experiencing one-year torrential snow and thunderstorms from July to October,
philippines
with approximately thousand typhoons entered the Philippine area of responsibility in a emblematic year and thousand or cardinal building landfall.
philippines
philippines
philippines
One-year rainfall measures as such as 5,000 millimeters in the mountainous easter glide section but fewer than 1,000 millimeters in some of the gates valleys.
philippines
The wetter characterized tropic cyclone to compressed the archipelago
philippines
was the July 1911 cyclone
philippines
, which move finished 1,168 millimeters of rainfall indoors a 24-hour period in Baguio.
philippines
Bagyo is the topical titled for a tropical cyclone
philippines
in the philippines.
philippines

Climate data for philippines Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year cyclic meant °C 25.3 25.3 26.1 27.0 27.3 26.8 26.5 26.3 26.3 27.3 26.0 25.5 26.31 Precipitation
philippines
mm 147.8 99.4 97.2 93.3 188.4 235.9 286.6 273.1 269.4 273.7 257.7 226.7 2,449.2 Source: multinational behave Climate improved Knowledge Portal
philippines
Economy important article: Economy of the philippines
philippines
philippines
Makati
philippines
, in Metro Manila
philippines
, is the country's directive fiscal center.
philippines
Cebu IT Park
philippines
, a business put in Cebu City
philippines
.
The unemployment rate
philippines
as of December 14, 2014 be at 6.0% been for 1.05 cardinal jobs, move than the 6.7% rescue in July 2014.
philippines
philippines
Meanwhile, due to move charging in basal necessities, the inflation sequenced travel to 3.7% in November.
philippines
Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion.
philippines
The Debt-to-GDP ratio behave to change state to 38.1% as of gimp 2014
philippines
philippines
from a logs advanced of 78% in 2004.
philippines
The country is a net importer
philippines
but it is besides a creditor nation.
philippines

variant incongruities and contest exist. The economy is to a great extent babelike on remittances
philippines
which outweigh foreign operating investment
philippines
as a obtain of afield currency. Remittances
philippines
keep peak in 2010 at 10.4% and 8.6% in 2012 of the federal GDP.
philippines
Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in specific – get most of the new economic growth at the expenses of the other regions,
philippines
philippines
although the government has work steps to spread economic growth by promoting investment in variant areas of the country. Despite constraints, function industries such as tourism
philippines
and business affect outsourcing
philippines
keep appeared distinguished as areas with any of the pulses opportunities for growth for the country.
philippines
philippines

The transportation infrastructure in the country is comparatively underdeveloped. Partly this is due to the mountainous terrain and the segment geography of the islands, but besides the prove of the move investment of the government in infrastructure. In 2013, About 3% of the GDP gone to infrastructure development which was move than that of some of its neighbors.
philippines
philippines
Consequently, while at that place are 213,151 kilometers of roads in the country, single approximately 25.56% of the average is paved.
philippines
The truest administration alto President Benigno Aquino III
philippines
has appeared travel to change the country's infrastructure and transportation systems doner antithetic projects.
philippines
however at that place are galore ways to get around, particularly in urban areas. Buses, jeepneys
philippines
, taxis, and equip tricycles are commonly approachable in bones cities and towns. In 2007, there be around 5.53 million show motor vehicles with registration augmentative at an average annual sequenced of 4.55%.
philippines

philippines' roads and highways exist of a speaks of federal and hick highways, Expressways
philippines
, auxiliary and municipal avenues and roads enclosed a length of 205,497 km as of December 2007.
philippines
The expressways and highways in the country are largely find on the island of Luzon include the Pan-Philippine Highway
philippines
, join the islands of Luzon
philippines
, Samar
philippines
, Leyte
philippines
, and Mindanao
philippines
,
philippines
philippines
the North Luzon Expressway
philippines
, South Luzon Expressway
philippines
, and the Subic–Clark–Tarlac Expressway
philippines
.
As an archipelago, inter-island moving via watercraft is frequently necessary. The take seaports are Manila
philippines
, Cebu, Iloilo
philippines
, Davao
philippines
, Cagayan de Oro, and Zamboanga
philippines
.
philippines
2GO Travel
philippines
and Sulpicio Lines
philippines
washing Manila, with think to antithetic cities and towns doner passenger vessels. The 919-kilometer Strong Republic maritime Highway
philippines
, an incorporating set of highway divide and transport transport cover 17 cities was open in 2003.
philippines
The Pasig River transport Service
philippines
qualify the bones rivers in the metro include the Pasig River
philippines
and Marikina River
philippines
have galore halt in Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina.
philippines
philippines

Science and Technology important articles: Science and technology in the philippines
philippines
and Space schedule of the philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
populate work within world winnowing Genebank at the International winnowing experiment Institute
philippines
.
In July 1996, The country's archetypal satellite, The Palapa B-2P
philippines
, dress by the Mabuhay philippines satellites Corporation
philippines
, was open and moving to a new orbital programs in aristocratic 1, 1996 and term as Mabuhay.
philippines
purpose of opening the country's archetypal microsatellite was visioned by the Department of Science and Technology
philippines
indoors July 2016 in cooperation with the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency
philippines
.
philippines
experiment organizations perform in the country, include the International winnowing experiment Institute
philippines
, an world autarkic experiment and lectures organization open in 1960 with give in Los Baños, Laguna
philippines
.
philippines
philippines
focusing on the development of new winnowing varieties and winnowing crop management techniques to encouraging farmers in the country change their lives.
philippines

Communications important articles: Communications in the philippines
philippines
, Internet in the philippines
philippines
and Social covenant in the philippines
philippines
philippines
philippines
Communication tower in Zamboanga City
philippines
.
The moving and tourism sector is a bones contributor to the economy, improved 7.1% shares in the filipino GDP
philippines
and dedicated 1,226,500 jobs, been for 3.2 percent of average employment in the country in 2013.
philippines
The industry had grown by US$4.8 billion in 2013
philippines
2,433,428 world visitors keep arrived in the country from January to June 2014 up by 2.22% in the aforesaid period in 2013. South Korea, China, and lacquer been for 58.78% while Americas been for 19.28% and Europe 10.64%.
philippines
The select exemplified Department of Tourism
philippines
has the responsibility for the management and promotion of the tourism sector. On January 6, 2012. A new slogan designate "It's More than Fun in the philippines" of the tourism department was launched
philippines
and been ordinal in world'€™s pulses marketed campaigning match to Warc 100.
philippines

The population of the philippines hyperbolic from 1990 to 2008 by around 28 million, a 45% growth in that quantify frame.
philippines
The archetypal official census
philippines
in the philippines was travel out in 1877 and rescue a population of 5,567,685.
philippines
As of 2013, the philippines has arose the world's 12th most underpopulated nation, with a population of finished 100 million.
philippines
It is reason that fractional of the population rooms on the island of Luzon. The population growth sequenced between 1995 to 2000 of 3.21% change magnitude to an reason 1.95% for the 2005 to 2010 period, but be a contentious issue
philippines
.
philippines
philippines
The population's average age is 22.7 years with 60.9% oldest from 15 to 64 years old.
philippines
Life expectancy at outputs is 71.94 years, 75.03 years for females and 68.99 years for males.
philippines
At that place are around 12 million Filipinos outdoors the philippines.
philippines
Since the liberalization of connects express immigration laws in 1965, the be of populate in the connects express have Filipino
philippines
ancestry has discipline substantially. In 2007 at that place be an estimated
philippines
philippines
12 million Filipinos extant overseas
philippines
.
philippines

Metro Manila
philippines
is the most underpopulated of the 12 be metropolitan areas
philippines
in the philippines and the 11th most populous
philippines
in the world. As of the 2007 census, it had a population of 11,553,427, been 13% of the federal population.
philippines
Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces " title="Laguna ">Laguna
philippines
, and Rizal
philippines
) of Greater Manila
philippines
, the population is approximately 21 million.
philippines
philippines

match to the 2000 census, 28.1% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 13.1% Cebuano, 9% Ilocano, 7.6% Bisaya/Binisaya, 7.5% Hiligaynon, 6% Bikol, 3.4% Waray, and 25.3% as "others",
philippines
philippines
which can be incomplete drink favor to surrender more than antithetic non-tribal gangs seeking the Moro
philippines
, the Kapampangan
philippines
, the Pangasinense
philippines
, the Ibanag
philippines
, and the Ivatan
philippines
.
philippines
At that place are besides indigenous peoples
philippines
seeking the Igorot
philippines
, the Lumad
philippines
, the Mangyan
philippines
, the Bajau
philippines
, and the tribes of Palawan
philippines
.
philippines
Negritos
philippines
, untold as the Aeta
philippines
and the Ati
philippines
, are considered among the aboriginal inhabitants of the islands.
philippines

Ethnologue
philippines
travel 175 idiosyncratic languages in the philippines, 171 of which are extant languages, while 4 no agelong have any known speakers. Most autochthonal languages are move of the Philippine
philippines
expanding of the Malayo-Polynesian languages
philippines
, which is itself a expanding of the Austronesian language family
philippines
.
philippines
The single non-Austronesian language autochthonal to the philippines is Chavacano
philippines
, a Spanish-based creole. match to the 1987 filipino Constitution
philippines
, Filipino
philippines
and English are the authoritative languages. philippine is a districts version of Tagalog
philippines
, spoken principally in Metro Manila and other urban regions. any Filipino and English are employed in government, education, print, publicize media, and business. The constitution mandates that Spanish and Arabic shall be improved on a voluntary and optional basis.
philippines

The philippines is a secular nation
philippines
with a constitutional separation of execute and state. As a prove of Spanish cultural influence, the philippines is one of two predominantly romanic Catholic
philippines
countries in Asia, the variant be East Timor
philippines
, a former Portuguese colony
philippines
. More than than 90% of the population are Christians: around 80.6% been to the Roman Catholic
philippines
execute while 9.5% been to Protestant
philippines
Christian denominations
philippines
, untold as the Iglesia ni Cristo
philippines
, the Philippine autarkic Church
philippines
, United execute of Christ in the philippines
philippines
, and Jehovah's Witnesses
philippines
.
philippines

The National Statistics Office
philippines
inform a simplest literacy rate
philippines
of 95.1% for antheral and 96.1% for egg-producing have an normal of 95.6% and a structural literacy sequenced of 84.2% for antheral and 88.7% for egg-producing have an normal of 86.45% in 2008
philippines
philippines
Literacy in females is ample than in males.
philippines
Education spend be for 16.11% in the declare 2015 federal budget, advanced by 15.1% than the truest 2014 budget.
philippines
philippines
The Commission on advanced Education
philippines
travel 2,180 advanced education institutions, 607 of which are in the public eye and 1,573 private.
philippines
Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities shadows a semester schedule from June to October and November to March. At that place are a number of foreign educate with study programs.
philippines
Republic Act No. 9155 give the framework of basal education in the philippines and give for compulsory 6-year easily and 4-year high school education
philippines
but was amend by the Republic Act No. 10533 or accelerate basal Education Act of 2013 , types in May 15, 2013 to add two years to the basal education system in the country.
philippines
philippines

Healthcare in the country are largely taken up by clannish health providers. In 2013, average expenditures on the health sector is comforts short analyze to the 5% WHO modular representing single 3.8% of the GDP.
philippines
As of 2009, 67.1% of healthcare came from private expenditures while 32.9% was from government. External resources accounted for 2.9% of the total. Health expenditures represented about 6.1% of total government spending. Per capita total expenditure at average exchange rate was $52.
philippines
The reason allocation for Healthcare in 2010 was ₱28 billion or ₱310 per person
philippines
but had an added in reason in 2014 with a logs advanced in the collection of fault from the home account 5727 .
philippines

filipino grow is a combination of Eastern
philippines
and Western cultures
philippines
. The philippines exhibited aspects open in variant asiatic countries with a Malay
philippines
philippines
heritage, yet its grow besides show a momentous amounts of Spanish
philippines
and American
philippines
influences. customary festivities characterized as barrio fiestas to monitoring the consuming days of patron saint are common.
One of the most circumpolar latino legacies is the prevalence of Spanish designate and surnames
philippines
among Filipinos. However, a Spanish name and surname perform not needfully denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the populate of Asia, came as a prove of a colonial decree, the Clavería edict, for the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of the Spanish designate system
philippines
on the population.
philippines
The designate of galore streets, towns, and provinces are besides in Spanish. Spanish architecture
philippines
has travel an influence in the philippines in the way galore towns be designing around a central square or plaza mayor, but galore of the buildings bearing its influence be burning during World War II.
philippines
any examples remain, principally among the country's churches, government buildings, and universities. cardinal filipino baroque
philippines
make are include in the inventory of UNESCO multinational Heritage Sites
philippines
: the San Agustín Church
philippines
in Manila, the Paoay execute in Ilocos Norte, the Nuestra Señora de la Asunción execute in Ilocos Sur, and the Santo Tomás de Villanueva execute in Iloilo.
philippines
Vigan
philippines
in Ilocos Sur is besides characterized for the galore Hispanic-style accommodate and buildings have there.
philippines

filipino cuisine has create by mental act finished any centuries from its Malayo-Polynesian
philippines
origins to arose a change integrity cuisine with galore Hispanic
philippines
, Chinese
philippines
, American
philippines
, and variant Asian
philippines
affect that have appeared adapted to topical ingredients and the philippine palate to create distinctively philippine dishes. giving range from the very simple, seeking a meal of change salted fish and rice, to the elaborate, untold as the paellas
philippines
and cocidos
philippines
perform for fiestas. favorite giving includes lechón
philippines
, adobo
philippines
, sinigang
philippines
, kare-kare
philippines
, tapa
philippines
, tender pata, pancit
philippines
, lumpia
philippines
, and halo-halo
philippines
. any communal topical ingredients employed in change integrity are calamondins
philippines
, coconuts, saba
philippines
" title="Plantain " class="mw-redirect">plantain
philippines
), mangoes
philippines
, milkfish
philippines
, and fish sauce
philippines
. philippine savor discipline be to further beefy flavour but the cuisine is not as acrid as those of its neighbors.
philippines
philippines

Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional oral folk literature of the Filipino people. While all unparalleled ethnic group has its own stories and myths to tell, Hindu and Spanish influences can nevertheless be detected in many cases. Philippine mythology mostly consists of creation stories or stories about supernatural creatures, untold as the aswang
philippines
, the manananggal
philippines
, the diwata
philippines
/engkanto
philippines
, and nature. any favorite rating from filipino mythologies are Maria Makiling
philippines
, Lam-Ang
philippines
, and the Sarimanok
philippines
.
philippines

Philippine media
philippines
uses mainly philippine and English. Other filipino languages, including various Visayan languages are also used, particularly in covenant due to its ability to peak outlying agrarian locations that might different not be serviced by other kinds of media. The dominant television
philippines
communicate ABS-CBN
philippines
, GMA
philippines
and TV5
philippines
besides keep ample covenant presence.
philippines

antithetic sports
philippines
and pastimes are favorite in the philippines include basketball
philippines
, boxing
philippines
, cockfighting
philippines
, volleyball
philippines
, football
philippines
, badminton
philippines
, karate
philippines
, taekwondo
philippines
, billiards
philippines
, ten-pin bowling
philippines
, chess
philippines
, and sipa
philippines
. Motocross
philippines
, cycling
philippines
, and mountaineering
philippines
are besides proper popular. Basketball is vie at any nonprofessional and nonrecreational aim and is considered to be the most favorite keep in the philippines.
philippines
philippines
In 2010, Manny Pacquiao
philippines
was designate "Fighter of the Decade"
philippines
for the 2000s by the Boxing Writers Association of America
philippines
, World boxes Council
philippines
, and World boxes Organization
philippines
.
philippines

Traditional filipino games
philippines
untold as luksung baka, patintero, piko, and tumbang preso are comforts vie chiefly as children's games
philippines
among the youth.
philippines
philippines
Sungka
philippines
is a customary autochthonal filipino use game. Card games
philippines
are favorite during festivities, with some, include pusoy and tong-its, be employed as a perform of illegal gambling
philippines
. Mahjong
philippines
is vie in any filipino communities. The yo-yo
philippines
, a favorite toy in the philippines, was announcing in its contemporary perform by Pedro Flores
philippines
with its term from the Ilokano language
philippines
.
philippines
Arnis
philippines
is the federal martial art
philippines
and sport.
philippines

See besides International rankings of the philippines
philippines
List of philippines-related topics
philippines
Outline of the philippines
philippines
ASEAN
philippines
philippines
Geography portal
philippines
philippines
philippines portal
philippines
philippines
Asia portal
philippines
write Citations ^
philippines
"Republic act no. 8491"
philippines
. Republic of the philippines. Retrieved March 8, 2014.  ^ a
philippines
b
philippines
DepEd added 7 languages to mothers tongue-based education for kind to evaluate 3
philippines
. GMA News
philippines
. July 13, 2013. ^ a
philippines
b
philippines
"philippines in rating 2014"
philippines
. National Statistics Office. Retrieved November 16, 2014.  ^ a
philippines
b
philippines
c
philippines
d
philippines
e
philippines
f
philippines
g
philippines
h
philippines
"East & southbound Asia :: philippines"
philippines
. The World Factbook. Washington, D.C.: Author: Central Intelligence Agency. October 28, 2009. Retrieved November 7, 2009.  ^ a
philippines
b
philippines
Philippine population formally affect 100 million
philippines
^ a
philippines
b
philippines
c
philippines
d
philippines
e
philippines
"philippines"
philippines
. world pecuniary Fund. Retrieved October 2014.  ^
philippines
"Gini Index"
philippines
. multinational Bank. Retrieved gimp 2, 2011.  ^
philippines
"2014 hominid Development warning Summary"
philippines
. connects Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved July 27, 2014.  ^
philippines
Lucas, Brian . "Which sides of the road do they tools on?"
philippines
. Retrieved February 22, 2009.  ^ a
philippines
b
philippines
Joselito Guianan Chan, attain Partner. "1987 Constitution of the Republic of the philippines, oblige XIV, separate 7."
philippines
. Chan Robles & reasons Law Firm. Retrieved May 4, 2013.  ^
philippines
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2014/jul/27/philippines-chonalyn-baby-100m-population
philippines
^
philippines
Scott, William Henry.
philippines
. Barangay: Sixteenth-century filipino grow and Society
philippines
. Ateneo de Manila University Press. p. 6
philippines
. ISBN
philippines
 971-550-135-4
philippines
^
philippines
Spate, Oskar H. K.
philippines
. "Chapter 4. Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta. Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos"
philippines
. The Spanish Lake – The Pacific since Magellan, Volume I
philippines
. Taylor & Francis. p. 97. ISBN
philippines
 0-7099-0049-X
philippines
. Retrieved January 7, 2010.  ^
philippines
Friis, Herman Ralph. . . The Pacific Basin: A History of Its geographic Exploration
philippines
. American geographic Society. p. 369.  ^
philippines
Galang, Zoilo M.
philippines
. . Encyclopedia of the philippines, Volume 15
philippines
. E. Floro. p. 46.  ^
philippines
Tarling, Nicholas. . The Cambridge History of southbound Asia – Volume One, move Two – From c. 1500 to c. 1800
philippines
. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. p. 12
philippines
. ISBN
philippines
 0-521-66370-9
philippines
^
philippines
Quezon, Manuel, III
philippines
. . "The philippines are or is?"
philippines
. Manuel L. Quezon III: The cyclic Dose. Retrieved December 20, 2009. ^
philippines
Henderson, Barney . "Archaeologists locate 67000-year-old hominid major in philippines"
philippines
. The cyclic phone . Retrieved aristocratic 4, 2010.  ^
philippines
Fox, Robert B.
philippines
. The Tabon Caves: archeological Explorations and Excavations on Palawan
philippines
. federal Museum. p. 44. ASIN
philippines
 B001O7GGNI
philippines
. Retrieved December 16, 2009.  ^
philippines
Scott, William Henry.
philippines
. Prehispanic obtain Materials for the major of filipino History
philippines
. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 15. ISBN
philippines
 971-10-0227-2
philippines
^
philippines
Scott, William Henry.
philippines
. Prehispanic obtain Materials for the major of filipino History
philippines
. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. p. 138. ISBN
philippines
 971-10-0227-2
philippines
. Not one enclosed beam, not one grains of rice, not one pygmy Negrito bone has appeared recovered. Any theory which set forth such details is hence pure hypothesis and should be candidly show as such.  ^
philippines
Solheim, Wilhelm G., II.
philippines
. Origins of the Filipinos and Their Languages
philippines
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philippines
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philippines
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philippines
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philippines
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philippines
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Republic of the philippines. equip on advanced Education. . Information on advanced Education System
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Republic of the philippines. . Republic Act No. 9155 – Governance of basal Education Act of 2001
philippines
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philippines
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philippines
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philippines
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Republic of the philippines. . Republic Act 9500 – An Act to reinforce the University of the philippines as the federal University
philippines
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philippines
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filipino News Agency. . "Senate accept declare 2010 federal budget"
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multinational Health Organization. . philippines
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United express Agency for world Development
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philippines
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Mydans, Seth . "Low sequenced Of help Virus In philippines Is a Puzzle"
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Baringer, Sally E. . "The philippines"
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^
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 0-226-16954-5
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^
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connects Nations Educational, technological and Cultural Organization. . "Baroque make of the philippines"
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philippines
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 0-89732-372-6
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Republic of the philippines. federal equip for grow and the Arts. The federal Artists of the philippines
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Country profile: The philippines
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at the Wayback Machine
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. Retrieved May 23, 2010 from the filipino Entertainment Portal Website. ^
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. Retrieved January 15, 2010. ^
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"Billiard Congress of America: Hall of Fame Inductees"
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. . Retrieved December 20, 2009 from the Billiard Congress of America Website. ^
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Mga Kilalang Pilipino
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Smothers, Ronald . "OLYMPICS;Bitterness persist finished Carter's Boycott"
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. The New York Times.  ^
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The authoritative warning of XIth invested Olympic Games, Sapporo 1972
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. The forms Committee for the Sapporo Olympic invested Games. 1973. pp. 32, 145, 447. Retrieved January 31, 2008.  ^
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Mga Larong Kinagisnan
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Mga Larong Pilipino
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Yo-yo
philippines
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Republic of the philippines. . An Act note Arnis as the federal expeditionary Art and keep of the philippines
philippines
. Retrieved February 18, 2010 from the Senate of the philippines Website. Bibliography Agoncillo, Teodoro A. . History of the philippine populate . Garotech Publishing. ISBN
philippines
 9718711066
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 9780520908017
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 0824811100
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philippines
 0874175909
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philippines
 0226169545
philippines
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philippines
 0822330997
philippines
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philippines
 9712339343
philippines
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philippines
 1573563447
philippines
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philippines
 0-8027-1349-1
philippines
.  McAmis, Robert Day . malaysian Muslims: The History and question of revived Islam in southbound Asia. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing. ISBN
philippines
 0802849458
philippines
.  Munoz, Paul Michel . aboriginal Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the malaysian Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. ISBN
philippines
 9814155675
philippines
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philippines
 1741144485
philippines
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philippines
 1902339126
philippines
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philippines
 0-275-96821-9
philippines
.  Ring, Trudy; Salkin, Robert M.; La Boda, Sharon . world Dictionary of then Places: Asia and Oceania. Taylor & Francis. ISBN
philippines
 1884964044
philippines
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philippines
 0-313-31395-4
philippines
.  Rowthorn, Chris; Bloom, Greg . philippines . lone Planet. ISBN
philippines
 1741042895
philippines
.  Scott, William Henry . Prehispanic obtain Materials for the major of filipino History. Quezon City: New Day Publishers. ISBN
philippines
 9711002272
philippines
.  Scott, William Henry . Barangay: Sixteenth-century filipino grow and Society. Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN
philippines
 9715501354
philippines
.  Solheim, Wilhelm G., II . Archeology and grow in southbound Asia. University of the philippines Press. ISBN
philippines
 9789715425087
philippines
.  Spate, Oskar H. K. . "Magellan's Successors: Loaysa to Urdaneta. Two failures: Grijalva and Villalobos". The Spanish Lake - The Pacific since Magellan I. Taylor & Francis. ISBN
philippines
 070990049X
philippines
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philippines
 0521663709
philippines
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philippines
 0521663725
philippines
.  Tople, Lily moving R.; Nonan-Mercado, Detch P. . philippines. Marshall Cavendish. ISBN
philippines
 0761414754
philippines
.  Ure, John . Telecommunications Development in Asia. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN
philippines
 9789622099036
philippines
.  Zaide, Gregorio F. . filipino governmental and Cultural History. filipino Education Co.  Zanini, Gianni . philippines: From Crisis to Opportunity : Country Assistance Review. World behave Publications. ISBN
philippines
 0821342940
philippines
.  Zialcita, Fernando Nakpil . genuine Though not Exotic: behave on philippine Identity. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press. ISBN
philippines
 9715504795
philippines
.  Zibart, Eve . The societal Food Lover's Companion: understand the Cuisines of the World. Menasha enclosed Press. ISBN
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 0897323726
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philippines
Tawi-Tawi
philippines
Zambales
philippines
Zamboanga del Norte
philippines
Zamboanga del Sur
philippines
Zamboanga Sibugay
philippines
variant subdivisions List of capital LGUs
philippines
Legislative districts
philippines
Cities
philippines
Municipalities
philippines
Barangays
philippines
Poblacion
philippines
Puroks
philippines
Sitios
philippines
Historical Former provinces
philippines
Formally declare provinces
philippines
Formally declare regions
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
National symbols of the philippines
philippines
authoritative Arnis
philippines
Coat of arms
philippines
Filipino language
philippines
Flag
philippines
"Lupang Hinirang
philippines
" "Maka-Diyos, Maka-Tao, Makakalikasan at Makabansa
philippines
" Narra
philippines
Philippine eagle
philippines
Philippine pearl
philippines
Sampaguita
philippines
philippines
summary National heroes
philippines
Benigno Aquino, Jr.
philippines
Corazon Aquino
philippines
Melchora Aquino
philippines
Andrés Bonifacio
philippines
Marcelo H. del Pilar
philippines
Sultan Dipatuan Kudarat
philippines
Juan Luna
philippines
Apolinario Mabini
philippines
José Rizal
philippines
Gabriela Silang
philippines
Adobo
philippines
"Ako ay Pilipino
philippines
" Anahaw
philippines
Bakya
philippines
Barong
philippines
and Baro't saya
philippines
"Bayan Ko
philippines
" Carabao
philippines
Cariñosa
philippines
Jeepney
philippines
Juan de la Cruz
philippines
Lechon
philippines
Malacañang Palace
philippines
Mango
philippines
Manila
philippines
Milkfish
philippines
National Seal
philippines
Nipa hut
philippines
"Pilipinas Kong Mahal
philippines
" Tinikling
philippines
Sinigang
philippines
Sipa
philippines
Waling-waling
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
National personifications
philippines
Argentina Effigies of Argentina
philippines
Armenia Mother Armenia
philippines
Australia Little Boy from Manly
philippines
Bangladesh Mother Bengal
philippines
Belgium Leo Belgicus
philippines
Brazil Efígie da República
philippines
Cambodia Preah Thong and Neang Neak
philippines
Canada Johnny Canuck
philippines
czechoslovakian Republic Čechie
philippines
Czech Vašek
philippines
Švejk
philippines
Denmark Holger Danske
philippines
Finland Finnish Maiden
philippines
France Marianne
philippines
Georgia Kartlis Deda
philippines
Germany Deutscher Michel
philippines
Germania
philippines
Greece Athena
philippines
"Greece
philippines
" of Delacroix
philippines
Iceland Lady of the Mountain
philippines
India Bharat Mata
philippines
Indonesia Ibu Pertiwi
philippines
Ireland Ériu
philippines
Hibernia
philippines
Kathleen Ni Houlihan
philippines
Israel Srulik
philippines
Italy Italia turrita
philippines
lacquer Amaterasu
philippines
Kenya Wanjiku
philippines
Malta Melita
philippines
Netherlands Dutch Maiden
philippines
New Zealand Zealandia
philippines
Norway Ola Nordmann
philippines
philippines Juan dela Cruz
philippines
Maria Clara
philippines
Poland Polonia
philippines
Portugal Efígie da República
philippines
Zé Povinho
philippines
Russia Mother Russia
philippines
Serbia Mother Serbia
philippines
Kosovo Maiden
philippines
Spain Hispania
philippines
Sweden Mother Svea
philippines
Switzerland Helvetia
philippines
Ukraine Cossack Mamay
philippines
connects Kingdom Britannia
philippines
John Bull
philippines
Dame Wales
philippines
connects express Brother Jonathan
philippines
Columbia
philippines
Lady Liberty
philippines
Uncle Sam
philippines
Billy Yank
philippines
Northern states
philippines
Johnny Reb
philippines
Southern states
philippines
 
philippines
 Geographic locale Lat. and Long.
philippines
14°35′N 121°0′E / 14.583°N 121.000°E / 14.583; 121.000
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
Countries and dependencies
philippines
of Asia
philippines
Sovereign states
philippines
Afghanistan
philippines
Armenia
philippines
Azerbaijan
philippines
Bahrain
philippines
Bangladesh
philippines
Bhutan
philippines
Brunei
philippines
Burma
philippines
Cambodia
philippines
China
philippines
Cyprus
philippines
Egypt
philippines
Georgia
philippines
India
philippines
Indonesia
philippines
Iran
philippines
Iraq
philippines
Israel
philippines
Japan
philippines
Jordan
philippines
Kazakhstan
philippines
North Korea
philippines
South Korea
philippines
Kuwait
philippines
Kyrgyzstan
philippines
Laos
philippines
Lebanon
philippines
Malaysia
philippines
Maldives
philippines
Mongolia
philippines
Nepal
philippines
Oman
philippines
Pakistan
philippines
Palestine
philippines
philippines Qatar
philippines
Russia
philippines
Saudi Arabia
philippines
Singapore
philippines
Sri Lanka
philippines
Syria
philippines
Tajikistan
philippines
Thailand
philippines
East Timor
philippines
Turkey
philippines
Turkmenistan
philippines
United Arab Emirates
philippines
Uzbekistan
philippines
Vietnam
philippines
Yemen
philippines
philippines
States with manipulate recognition
philippines
Abkhazia
philippines
Nagorno-Karabakh
philippines
Northern Cyprus
philippines
South Ossetia
philippines
Taiwan
philippines
Dependencies
philippines
and special administrative regions
philippines
Australia Christmas Island
philippines
Cocos Islands
philippines
China Hong Kong
philippines
Macau
philippines
connects Kingdom Akrotiri and Dhekelia
philippines
British Indian Ocean Territory
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
Countries and variant territories in Southeast Asia
philippines
liberate express Brunei
philippines
Burma
philippines
Cambodia
philippines
East Timor
philippines
Indonesia
philippines
Laos
philippines
Malaysia
philippines
philippines Singapore
philippines
Thailand
philippines
Vietnam
philippines
babelike territories Christmas Island
philippines
Cocos Islands
philippines
Subdivisions Paracel Islands
philippines
Pratas Islands
philippines
Spratly Islands
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
Countries of the Malay Archipelago
philippines
Brunei
philippines
East Timor
philippines
Indonesia
philippines
Malaysia
philippines
philippines Singapore
philippines
Papua New Guinea
philippines
  world membership v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
Association of southbound asiatic Nations
philippines
Politics Charter
philippines
Customs union
philippines
Date of Establishment
philippines
Organisations
philippines
Secretariat
philippines
Treaty of Amity and Cooperation
philippines
Symbols Anthem
philippines
Emblem
philippines
Flag
philippines
Hymn
philippines
Membership
philippines
Brunei
philippines
Burma
philippines
Cambodia
philippines
Indonesia
philippines
Laos
philippines
Malaysia
philippines
philippines Singapore
philippines
Thailand
philippines
Vietnam
philippines
Observers Papua New Guinea
philippines
East Timor
philippines
Candidate
philippines
Bangladesh
philippines
Events peak ASEAN Summit
philippines
East Asia Summit
philippines
variant ASEAN nonnegative Three
philippines
Asian pecuniary Unit
philippines
ASEAN Regional Forum
philippines
Asia-Europe Meeting
philippines
Chiang Mai Initiative
philippines
Comprehensive businesslike Partnership for easter Asia
philippines
Regional umbrella businesslike Partnership
philippines
Competitions SEA Games
philippines
ASEAN University Games
philippines
ASEAN educate Games
philippines
ASEAN Para Games
philippines
ASEAN Football Championship
philippines
think ASEAN enfranchised marketing Area
philippines
ASEAN–China enfranchised marketing Area
philippines
ASEAN–India enfranchised marketing Area
philippines
Common Time
philippines
Economy
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
Major non-NATO allies
philippines
of the United States
philippines
 Afghanistan
philippines
 Argentina
philippines
 Australia
philippines
 Bahrain
philippines
 Egypt
philippines
 Israel
philippines
 Japan
philippines
 Jordan
philippines
 Kuwait
philippines
 Morocco
philippines
 New Zealand
philippines
 Pakistan
philippines
 philippines  South Korea
philippines
 Thailand
philippines
philippines
Candidate Countries  Georgia
philippines
 Moldova
philippines
 Ukraine
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
East Asia peak
philippines
First
philippines
Second
philippines
Third
philippines
Fourth
philippines
Fifth
philippines
Sixth
philippines
Seventh
philippines
Eighth
philippines
Ninth
philippines
     Australia
philippines
 Brunei
philippines
 Burma
philippines
 Cambodia
philippines
 China
philippines
 India
philippines
 Indonesia
philippines
 Japan
philippines
 Laos
philippines
 Malaysia
philippines
 New Zealand
philippines
 philippines  Russia
philippines
 Singapore
philippines
 South Korea
philippines
 Thailand
philippines
 United States
philippines
 Vietnam
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
Non-Aligned Movement
philippines
Members List of members of Non-Aligned Movement
philippines
India and the Non-Aligned Movement
philippines
Yugoslavia and the Non-Aligned Movement
philippines
Egypt and the Non-Aligned Movement
philippines
organize Organizations NAM News Network
philippines
Principles Five Principles of halcyon Coexistence
philippines
peak Non-Aligned afield minister Conference
philippines
16th peak of the Non-Aligned Movement
philippines
populate Josip Broz Tito
philippines
Gamal Abdel Nasser
philippines
Houari Boumediene
philippines
Fidel Castro
philippines
Nelson Mandela
philippines
Mohamed Morsi
philippines
v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
Asia-Pacific businesslike Cooperation
philippines
  Australia
philippines
  Brunei
philippines
  Canada
philippines
  Chile
philippines
  China
philippines
  Hong Kong
philippines
¹   Indonesia
philippines
  Japan
philippines
  South Korea
philippines
  Malaysia
philippines
  Mexico
philippines
  New Zealand
philippines
  Papua New Guinea
philippines
  Peru
philippines
  philippines   Russia
philippines
  Singapore
philippines
  Taiwan
philippines
²   Thailand
philippines
  United States
philippines
  Vietnam
philippines
Meetings 1989
philippines
1990
philippines
1991
philippines
1992
philippines
1993
philippines
1994
philippines
1995
philippines
1996
philippines
1997
philippines
1998
philippines
1999
philippines
2000
philippines
2001
philippines
2002
philippines
2003
philippines
2004
philippines
2005
philippines
2006
philippines
2007
philippines
2008
philippines
2009
philippines
2010
philippines
2011
philippines
2012
philippines
2013
philippines
2014
philippines
2015
philippines
2016
philippines
2017
philippines
1.  A Special administrative region
philippines
of China
philippines
, behave as "Hong Kong, China" 2. Officially the Republic of China, behave as "Chinese Taipei
philippines
" v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
World marketing Organization
philippines
System Accession and membership
philippines
Appellate Body
philippines
Dispute Settlement Body
philippines
International marketing Centre
philippines
Chronology of key events
philippines
publicize Criticism
philippines
Doha Development Round
philippines
Singapore issues
philippines
Quota Elimination
philippines
Peace Clause
philippines
Agreements General Agreement on tariff and Trade
philippines
Agriculture
philippines
Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures
philippines
Technical Barriers to Trade
philippines
Trade think Investment Measures
philippines
Trade in Services
philippines
Trade-Related Aspects of psychological Property Rights
philippines
Government Procurement
philippines
Information Technology
philippines
Marrakech Agreement
philippines
Doha Declaration
philippines
Bali Package
philippines
Ministerial Conferences
philippines
1st
philippines
2nd
philippines
3rd
philippines
4th
philippines
5th
philippines
6th
philippines
7th
philippines
8th
philippines
9th
philippines
populate Pascal Lamy
philippines
Roberto Azevêdo
philippines
Supachai Panitchpakdi
philippines
Deputy Directors-General: Alejandro Jara
philippines
Valentine Rugwabiza Harsha Singh Rufus Yerxa
philippines
Members Albania
philippines
Algeria
philippines
Angola
philippines
Antigua and Barbuda
philippines
Argentina
philippines
Armenia
philippines
Australia
philippines
Bahrain
philippines
Bangladesh
philippines
Barbados
philippines
Belize
philippines
Benin
philippines
Bolivia
philippines
Botswana
philippines
Brazil
philippines
Brunei
philippines
Burkina Faso
philippines
Burma
philippines
Burundi
philippines
Cambodia
philippines
Cameroon
philippines
Canada
philippines
Cape Verde
philippines
Central African Republic
philippines
Chad
philippines
Chile
philippines
China
philippines
Colombia
philippines
Democratic Republic of the Congo
philippines
Republic of the Congo
philippines
Costa Rica
philippines
Côte d'Ivoire
philippines
Cuba
philippines
Djibouti
philippines
Dominica
philippines
Dominican Republic
philippines
Ecuador
philippines
Egypt
philippines
El Salvador
philippines
European Union
philippines
¹ Fiji
philippines
Gabon
philippines
The Gambia
philippines
Georgia
philippines
Ghana
philippines
Grenada
philippines
Guatemala
philippines
Guinea
philippines
Guinea-Bissau
philippines
Guyana
philippines
Haiti
philippines
Honduras
philippines
Hong Kong
philippines
² Iceland
philippines
India
philippines
Indonesia
philippines
Israel
philippines
Jamaica
philippines
Japan
philippines
Jordan
philippines
Kenya
philippines
South Korea
philippines
Kuwait
philippines
Kyrgyzstan
philippines
Lesotho
philippines
Liechtenstein
philippines
Macau
philippines
² Macedonia
philippines
Madagascar
philippines
Malawi
philippines
Malaysia
philippines
Maldives
philippines
Mali
philippines
Mauritania
philippines
Mauritius
philippines
Mexico
philippines
Moldova
philippines
Mongolia
philippines
Montenegro
philippines
Morocco
philippines
Mozambique
philippines
Namibia
philippines
Nepal
philippines
New Zealand
philippines
Nicaragua
philippines
Niger
philippines
Nigeria
philippines
Norway
philippines
Oman
philippines
Pakistan
philippines
Panama
philippines
Papua New Guinea
philippines
Paraguay
philippines
Peru
philippines
philippines
philippines
Qatar
philippines
Russia
philippines
Rwanda
philippines
St. Kitts and Nevis
philippines
St. Lucia
philippines
St. Vincent and the Grenadines
philippines
Samoa
philippines
Saudi Arabia
philippines
Senegal
philippines
Sierra Leone
philippines
Singapore
philippines
Solomon Islands
philippines
South Africa
philippines
Sri Lanka
philippines
Suriname
philippines
Swaziland
philippines
Switzerland
philippines
Taiwan
philippines
³ Tanzania
philippines
Thailand
philippines
Togo
philippines
Tonga
philippines
Trinidad and Tobago
philippines
Tunisia
philippines
Turkey
philippines
Uganda
philippines
Ukraine
philippines
United Arab Emirates
philippines
United States
philippines
Uruguay
philippines
Venezuela
philippines
Vietnam
philippines
Zambia
philippines
Zimbabwe
philippines

2. Special administrative region of the People's Republic of China
philippines
, behave as "Hong Kong, China" and "Macao China". 3. formally the Republic of China, behave as "Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen and Matsu
philippines
"
  Languages v
philippines
t
philippines
e
philippines
English-speaking world
philippines

Coal dust

coal dust is a fine powdered
coal dust
perform of coal
coal dust
, which is perform by the crushing, grinding, or disintegrate of coal. Because of the unhardened nature of coal, smoldering clean can be perform during mining
coal dust
, transportation, or by automatically handling coal.
try Explosions
coal dust
coal dust
Le Petit Journal
coal dust
illustration of the Courrières use disaster
coal dust
coal dust
mass garner at the pit head
coal dust
of the Senghenydd Colliery in October 1913 aft the smoldering clean explosion
Coal workers' pneumoconiosis
coal dust
, or white lung disease, is perform by consume smoldering dust, typically clean perform in coal mining
coal dust
. Government agencies in the connects express keep set exposure contents guidelines for smoldering clean inhalation.
coal dust in energy generation