Papua new guinea

Papua New Guinea , officially the Independent State of papua new guinea, is an Oceanian
papua new guinea
country that take the eastbound fractional of the island of New Guinea
papua new guinea
and its asea islands in Melanesia
papua new guinea
, a region of the southbound Pacific Ocean
papua new guinea
northbound of Australia
papua new guinea
. Its capital, find on its southbound coast, is Port Moresby
papua new guinea
. The western fractional of New Guinea
papua new guinea
manufactured the Indonesian
papua new guinea
provinces of Papua
papua new guinea
and West Papua
papua new guinea
.
strongest growth in papua new guinea's commercialize and resource sector
papua new guinea
has led to the country's proper the fourth fastest-growing
papua new guinea
economy in the multinational as of 2011.
papua new guinea
Many people in the country live in extreme poverty when measured in terms of money, with about one-third of the population living on less than US$1.25 per day.
papua new guinea

At the federal level, aft being tamper by cardinal external giving since 1884, papua new guinea established its sovereignty in 1975 following 70 years of Australian administration. It became a separate Commonwealth realm
papua new guinea
with Queen Elizabeth II
papua new guinea
as its head of state
papua new guinea
and became a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
papua new guinea
in its own right.
History important article: History of papua new guinea
papua new guinea

Agriculture was independently create in the New Guinea highlands approximately 7000 BC, making it one of the few areas in the world where populate independently domesticated plants.
papua new guinea
A bones migration of Austronesian
papua new guinea
speaking peoples to coastal regions of New Guinea work travel approximately 500 BC. This has appeared unsuited with the introduction of pottery, pigs, and certain seine techniques. More than recently, in the 18th century, the sweet potato
papua new guinea
was travel to New Guinea, have appeared announcing to the Moluccas
papua new guinea
by Portuguese
papua new guinea
traders, who obtaining it from southbound America.
papua new guinea
The far advanced range outputs from sweetest potato be radically transformed traditional agriculture; sweetest potato largely succeed the preceding staple, taro
papua new guinea
, and give tower to a momentous added in population in the highlands.
smallest was characterized in Europe around the island until the 19th century, although lusitanian and Spanish explorers, untold as Dom Jorge de Meneses
papua new guinea
and Yñigo Ortiz de Retez
papua new guinea
, had interact it as aboriginal as the 16th century. Traders from southbound Asia had visit New Guinea founded 5,000 years ago to archive bird of paradise
papua new guinea
plumes.
papua new guinea
The country's aggregate name ensue from its complex administrative history earlier independence. The vent papua is derives from an old local titled of ambivalent origin.
papua new guinea
"New Guinea" was the term coined
papua new guinea
by the Spanish
papua new guinea
explorer Yñigo Ortiz de Retez
papua new guinea
. In 1545 he express the resemblance of the populate to those he had before perceive on the Guinea
papua new guinea
glide of Africa.
During World War I
papua new guinea
, German New Guinea was take by Australia, which aft the war was computerized a League of Nations Mandate
papua new guinea
to injected it. Papua, by contrast, was see to be an outermost Territory of the Australian Commonwealth, though as a matter of law it be a British possession. This was momentous for the country's post-independence legal system. The difference in legal status meant that up until 1949, Papua and New Guinea had entirely separate administrations, both controlled by Australia.
However, reliable statutes
papua new guinea
act to have application single in one of the two territories. This jurisdictional difference of law was dress further by the adjustment of the former boundary among contiguous provinces with respect to road accessing and language groups. Some of the statutes use single on one sides of a boundary that no longer exists.
A secessionist revolted in 1975–76 on Bougainville Island
papua new guinea
prove in an eleventh-hour modification of the types Constitution of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
to allowance for Bougainville and the variant eight standardized to keep quasi-federal status as provinces. A re-create uprising
papua new guinea
been in 1988 and claimed 20,000 lives until it was went in 1997. Following the revolt, the liberate Bougainville adopted Joseph Kabui
papua new guinea
as president in 2005 and he suffice until 2008. He was succeed by his deputy John Tabinaman
papua new guinea
, who act to be re-elected as leader until the election of December 2008, which James Tanis
papua new guinea
won.
papua new guinea is a Commonwealth realm
papua new guinea
; as untold Queen Elizabeth II
papua new guinea
acts as its Sovereign and Head of State. It was expected by the constitutional convention, which prepared the types constitution, and by Australia, the outbound metropolitan power, that papua new guinea would choose not to retain its link with the Commonwealth monarchy. The founders, however, considered that imperial honours had a cachet that the newly independent state would not be able to confer with a strictly indigenous honours system, so the monarchy was retained.
papua new guinea
The further is equal by the Governor-General of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
, presently Sir Michael Ogio
papua new guinea
. papua new guinea and the Solomon Islands
papua new guinea
are other among Commonwealth realms in that Governors-General are decide by the legislature instead than by the executive branch.
In the aboriginal years of independence, the instability of the celebrate system led to support votes of no confidence
papua new guinea
in Parliament with prove changes of the government of the day, but with referral to the electorate, through federal elections single occurring every cardinal years. In recent years, successive governments keep passed legislation preventing such votes sooner than 18 months after a federal election and within 12-month of the next election, and in December 2012 the archetypal 2 readings were passed to prevent votes of no confidence occurring within the archetypal 30 months. This restriction on votes of no confidence has arguably resulted in greater stability, although perhaps at a cost of reducing the accountability of the executive branch of government.
In afield policy, papua new guinea is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations
papua new guinea
, Pacific Islands Forum and the Melanesian chairs groups of countries and was mismatched Observer status indoors ASEAN
papua new guinea
in 1976, followed concomitant by circumstantial Observer status in 1981. It is besides a member of APEC and an ACP country, think with the European Union.
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
priming ministers Peter O'Neill
papua new guinea
with Hillary Clinton
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
This separate is outdated. pleased change this oblige to mirror revolutionary events or freshly available information.
Under an Amendment of 2002 the leader of the party winning the largest be of seats in the Election is invited by the Governor-General to form the Government, if he can muster the necessary majority in Parliament. The process of forming untold a coalition in PNG, where at that place is little ideologically binding parties together, involves substantial horsetrading right up until the last moment. Peter O'Neil emerged papua new guinea's Prime Minister after the July 2012 Election, and perform a Government with the former Governor of easter New Britain Province, Leon Dion as Deputy Prime Minister.
Law
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
The Parliament making of papua new guinea in Port Moresby
papua new guinea
important article: Law of papua new guinea
papua new guinea

All ordinary statutes enacts by Parliament must be unanimous with the Constitution. The courts have jurisdiction to overrides on the constitutionality of statutes, both in disputes before them and on a reference where there is no dispute but only an see questioned of law. Unusual among developing countries, the judicial branch of government in papua new guinea has be remarkably independent, and serial executive governments have continued to respect its authority.
This federal act system used in towns and cities is support by a village act system in the more remote areas. The law retain the village behave is 'customary law' and these behave are enclosed favor on the Law of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
page.
hominid rights important article: Human rights in papua new guinea
papua new guinea
See also: Sexual violence in papua new guinea
papua new guinea

papua new guinea is episodic into cardinal regions
papua new guinea
, which are not the capital administrative divisions but are instead momentous in galore aspects of government, commercial, keep and variant activities.
Provinces
papua new guinea
are the primary administrative divisions of the country. hick governments are branch of the federal government – papua new guinea is not a federation of provinces. The province-level divisions are as follows:
Central
papua new guinea
Chimbu Eastern Highlands
papua new guinea
East New Britain
papua new guinea
East Sepik
papua new guinea
Enga
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Gulf
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Madang
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Manus
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Milne Bay
papua new guinea
Morobe
papua new guinea
New Ireland
papua new guinea
union Bougainville
papua new guinea
Southern Highlands
papua new guinea
Western Province
papua new guinea
Western Highlands
papua new guinea
West New Britain
papua new guinea
West Sepik
papua new guinea
National primary District
papua new guinea
Hela
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Jiwaka
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papua new guinea

At 462,840 km2 , papua new guinea is the world's fifty-fourth ample country. include all its islands, it be betwixt latitudes
papua new guinea
and 12°S
papua new guinea
, and longitudes 140°
papua new guinea
and 160°E
papua new guinea
.
The country is price on the Pacific look of Fire
papua new guinea
, at the aim of collision of any tectonic plates
papua new guinea
. At that place are a be of about volcanoes
papua new guinea
, and eruptions are frequent. Earthquakes are comparatively common, sometimes accompanied by tsunamis
papua new guinea
.
papua new guinea is one of the few regions closing to the equator
papua new guinea
that experiencing snowfall
papua new guinea
, which occurring in the most tasks move of the mainland.
Ecology See also: Conservation in papua new guinea
papua new guinea

Geologically, the island of New Guinea is a union extension of the Indo-Australian architectonic plate
papua new guinea
, forms move of a only beach masses which is Australia-New Guinea
papua new guinea
. It is joined to the Australian filtered by a improved continental shelf
papua new guinea
across the Torres Strait
papua new guinea
, which in former discipline had lain subject as a land bridge
papua new guinea
, especially during ice ages
papua new guinea
when sea aim be move than at present.
galore of the variant islands indoors PNG territory, include New Britain, New Ireland, Bougainville, the Admiralty Islands
papua new guinea
, the Trobriand Islands
papua new guinea
, and the Louisiade Archipelago
papua new guinea
, were ne'er think to New Guinea by beach bridges. As a consequence, they have their own flora and fauna; in particular, they missing many of the beach mammals and flightless monitoring that are common to New Guinea and Australia.
As the Indo-Australian silver travel north, it conflict with the Eurasian Plate
papua new guinea
. The collision of the two coat travel up the Himalayas
papua new guinea
, the Indonesian islands, and New Guinea's principal Range. The principal crops is much petty and higher than the mountains of Australia, so advanced that it is chambers to rare tropical glaciers
papua new guinea
. New Guinea is move of the wet tropics, and galore Indomalayan
papua new guinea
rainforest plants distributed across the dress straits from Asia, change integrity unneurotic with the old Australian and be floras.
At truest evaluate of deforestation
papua new guinea
, more than than fractional of the country's forests could be losing or earnestly devalued by 2021, match to a new satellites major of the region.
papua new guinea
active one-quarter of papua new guinea's rainforests be improved or destroying betwixt 1972 and 2002.
papua new guinea

papua new guinea is richly endowed with natural resources, including mineral and renewable resources, untold as forests, marine , and in any parts agriculture. The rugged terrain — including high mountain ranges and valleys, swamps and islands — and high cost of developing infrastructure, combined with other budgets makes it difficult for outdoors developers. Local developers are harm by years of deficient investment in education, health, ICT and access to finance. Agriculture, for subsistence and fetched crops, provides a livelihood for 85% of the population and behave to provide any 30% of GDP. Mineral deposits, including gold, oil
papua new guinea
, and copper, charging for 72% of marketing earnings. Oil palm
papua new guinea
production has discipline steadily finished revolutionary years , with palm oil
papua new guinea
now the important agricultural export. In households participating, coffee be the bones marketing range , followed by cocoa
papua new guinea
and coconut oil
papua new guinea
/copra
papua new guinea
from the coastal areas, all mostly perform by smallholders and tea, perform on estates and rubber. The Iagifu/Hedinia fielding was detects in 1986 in the Papuan fold and poking belt
papua new guinea
.
papua new guinea
:471
In gimp 2006, the United Nations Development Programme
papua new guinea
Policy label for papua new guinea's designation of perform country to be sequenced to least-developed country because of increase economic and societal stagnation.
papua new guinea
However, an evaluation by the International pecuniary Fund
papua new guinea
in late 2008 found that "a combination of prudent fiscal and monetary policies, and advanced global prices for mineral commodity exports, have underpinned papua new guinea's recent lighten economic growth and macroeconomic stability. By 2012 PNG had enjoyed a decade of affirmative economic growth, at over 6% since 2007, flat during the Global fiscal Crisis
papua new guinea
years of 2008/9. PNG's actual GDP growth sequenced as at 2011 was 8.9%.,
papua new guinea
and 9.2% for 2012, match to the asiatic Development Bank.
papua new guinea
This economic growth has been chiefly attributed to strong commodity prices, especially mineral but also agricultural, with the high exact for mineral products largely sustained even during the crisis by the lighten asiatic marketing a peering commercialize sector
papua new guinea
, and particularly since 2009 by a lighten outlook and the construction phase for earthy gas exploration, production, and exportation in liquid form by LNG tankers , all of which willing entailed multi-billion-dollar investments .
A support bones covenant is basing on initials rights see by the cut oil and gas bones Total S.A.
papua new guinea
and the US consort InterOil
papua new guinea
Corp. , which have partially combined their assets aft Total agreed in December 2013 to purchase 61.3% of IOC's Antelope and Elk gas handle rights, with the scheduling to develop them starting in 2016, include the construction of a liquefaction put to allow marketing of LNG. Total S.A.
papua new guinea
has individually different cooperative candid agreement with the PNG consort Oil Search
papua new guinea
.
favor gas and mineral covenant are declare , with ample exploration actual across the country.
papua new guinea

The PNG government's long-term Vision 2050 and shorter-term policy documents, including the 2013 Budget and the 2014 Responsible Sustainable Development Strategy, underlines the need for a more than antithetic economy, basing upon sustainable industries and avoiding the perform of Dutch Disease
papua new guinea
from major resource extraction projects undermining other industries, as has occurred in many countries experiencing oil or other mineral booms, notably in occidental Africa, undermining such of their agriculture sector, perform and tourism, and with them broad-based employment prospects. decide keep been taken to mitigate these effects, including through the establishment of a sovereign wealth fund
papua new guinea
, partly to reinforce revenue and expenditure flows, but much will be upon the readiness to forms real reforms to effective use of revenue, tackling rampant corruption and empowering households and businesses to access markets, servicing and discipline a more lighten economy, with lower costs, particularly for small- to medium-size enterprises.
The PNG legislature has enacts laws in which a write of further label "customary beach title
papua new guinea
" is recognised, convey that the customary arrive of the indigenous peoples
papua new guinea
keep some judicial basis to absolute tenure. This traditional beach notionally cover most of the multipurpose beach in the country ;
papua new guinea
alienated land is either see privately alto note lease or is government land. Freehold label can single be see by papua new guinea citizens.
papua new guinea

This is a matter of vital importance because a problem of economic development is price the membership of traditional landowning groups and the owners. Disputes between mining and forestry companies and landowner groups often devolve on the issue of whether the companies entered into contractual relations for the use of beach with the true owners. Customary property — usually beach — cannot be devised by will. It can only be inherited according to the custom of the deceased's people. The Lands Act was amended in 2010 along with the Land Group Incorporation Act, intended to improve the management of state land, mechanisms for dispute resolution over land, and to enable traditional landowners to be better able to access finance and possible partnerships over portions of their land, if they seek to develop it for urban or rural economic activities. The Land Group Incorporation Act requires more specific identification of the traditional landowners than hitherto and their more specific authorisation before any beach arrangements are determined; to acquire vast tracts of traditional land, purportedly for agricultural projects, but in an almost all cases as a back-door mechanism for shopping tropical forest resources for logging — circumventing the more exacting requirements of the Forest Act, for shopping Timber Permits . Following a national outcry, these SABLs have been subject to a Commission of Inquiry, established in mid-2011, for which the warning is still awaited for initial presentation to the Prime Minister and Parliament.
Demographics important article: Demographics of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Huli
papua new guinea
Wigman from the Southern Highlands
papua new guinea
.
The others are Austronesians
papua new guinea
, their ancestors have land in the region fewer than four thousand years ago. There are also numerous populate from variant parts of the multinational now resident, including Chinese
papua new guinea
,
papua new guinea
Europeans, Australians, Filipinos, Polynesians, and Micronesians . approximately 40,000 expatriates, largely from Australia and China, be extant in papua new guinea in 1975.
papua new guinea

English is the language of government and the education system, but it is not oral widely.
Although it lies in the Papua region, Port Moresby has a highly diverse population which chiefly uses Tok Pisin, and to a lesser extent English, with Motu spoken as the autochthonal language in outlying villages. With an normal of only 7,000 speakers per language, papua new guinea has a ample density of languages than any other nation on earth minds Vanuatu
papua new guinea
.
Health
papua new guinea has the highest incidence of HIV and AIDS
papua new guinea
in the Pacific region and is the twentieth country in the Asia Pacific region to fit the criteria for a talk HIV/AIDS epidemic.
papua new guinea
missing of HIV/AIDS awareness is a bones problem, particularly in agrarian areas.
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Asaro mudman
papua new guinea
with his unparalleled clay masks
The courts and government practice maintain the constitutional right to freedom of speech, thought, and belief, and no legislation to curb those rights has been adopted. The 2000 census open that 96% of citizens identified themselves as members of a Christian church; however, galore citizens combine their Christian faith with some traditional indigenous religious practices.
papua new guinea
The censuses percentages be as follows:
Roman Catholic Church
papua new guinea
Evangelical Lutheran execute of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
United Church
papua new guinea
Seventh-day Adventist Church
papua new guinea
Pentecostal
papua new guinea
Evangelical
papua new guinea
Alliance Anglican execute of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Baptist
papua new guinea
Church of Christ
papua new guinea
variant Christian
papua new guinea
Bahá'í Faith
papua new guinea
autochthonal beliefs and variant
customary religions be frequently animist
papua new guinea
. any besides been to keep elements of ancestor worship
papua new guinea
, though generalisation is suspect given the extreme heterogeneity of Melanesian societies. Prevalent among traditional tribes is the belief in masalai, or evil spirits, which are blamed for "poisoning" people, causing calamity and death, and the practice of puripuri " title="Maleficium ">sorcery
papua new guinea
).
papua new guinea
papua new guinea

grow important articles: Culture of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
and Music of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
This peering is perform of leaves, travel and coconut shell. The peering is fasten around a dancer's ankle and perform a peering when the dancer moves.
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
This bilum bag is from Goroka, in the eastbound Highlands Province of papua new guinea.
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Resident of Boga-Boga, a village on the southbound glide of mainland papua new guinea
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
20th century woody Abelam
papua new guinea
ancestor rating .
Most of these cultural groups have their own language. People typically live in villages that rely on subsistence farming. In some areas people hunt and collect wild plants " title="Yam ">yam roots
papua new guinea
) to button their diets. Those who arose expert at hunting, take and seine graduated a ample deals of respect.
Sea shells
papua new guinea
are no longer the currency of papua new guinea, as they be in some regions — sea shells be abolished as currency in 1933. However, this tradition is still show in topical customs; in some cultures, to get a bride, a shaven essential transport a certain be of golden-edged clam shells
papua new guinea
as a bride price
papua new guinea
. In variant regions, the bride determined is provide in lengths of shell money
papua new guinea
, pigs, cassowaries
papua new guinea
or cash. Elsewhere, it is brides who traditionally pay a dowry
papua new guinea
.
keep is an central move of papua new guinean grow and rugby league
papua new guinea
is by far the most favorite sport.
papua new guinea
In a nation where communities are far apart and many populate live at a minimal subsistence level, rugby league has been set forth as a replacement for tribal warfare as a way of explaining the local enthusiasm for the gage . galore papua new guineans have become instant celebrities by representing their country or playing in an overseas professional league. Even Australian rugby league players who have vie in the annual State of Origin series
papua new guinea
, which is spy feverishly all year in PNG, are among the most resurfacing characterized populate passim the nation.
variant bones keep which keep a move in the papua new guinea keep panel are Australian tamper football
papua new guinea
, Association football, rugby union
papua new guinea
and, in eastbound Papua, cricket
papua new guinea
.
A ample reconciling of the population is illiterate
papua new guinea
,
papua new guinea
with women predominate in this area.
papua new guinea
such of the education in the country is give by execute institutions.
papua new guinea
This encompasses 500 educate of the Evangelical Lutheran execute of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
.
papua new guinea
papua new guinea has six universities unconnected from variant bones fourth institutions. The two opening universities are the University of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
basing in the National primary District
papua new guinea
,
papua new guinea
and the papua new guinea University of Technology
papua new guinea
basing outdoors of Lae
papua new guinea
, in Morobe Province
papua new guinea
.
buses in papua new guinea is to a great extent manipulate by the country's stony terrain. Port Moresby
papua new guinea
is not linked by road to any of the other bones towns, and many outlying villages can only be reached by lighten aircraft or on foot. As a result, air moving is the only most important form of transport for human and advanced find freight. In addition to two world airfields, papua new guinea has 578 airstrips, most of which are unpaved.
papua new guinea
Assets are not maintained to good candid standards and poorer transport be a bones impediment to the development of locks of federal unity.
Air moving
Jacksons world Airport
papua new guinea
is the bones world airport in papua new guinea, find 5 miles from Port Moresby.
See besides
papua new guinea
Geography portal
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Oceania portal
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Commonwealth realms portal
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
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papua new guinea
Outline of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Biodiversity protection efforts in papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Communications in papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Foreign relations of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
LGBT rights in papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Human Rights in papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Orders, decorations, and medals of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Military of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Tourism of papua new guinea
papua new guinea

outermost think determine more than around papua new guinea at sister projects
papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Definitions
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from Wiktionary
papua new guinea
Media
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from Commons
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News stories
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from
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Quotations
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from
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Source texts
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from
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Textbooks
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from
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Learning resources
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from
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has archetypal text think to this article: Constitution of the autarkic note of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
Government Prime ministers of papua new guinea
papua new guinea
widespread information papua new guinea
papua new guinea
entry at The multinational Factbook
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papua new guinea
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at UCB Libraries GovPubs. papua new guinea
papua new guinea
at DMOZ
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Atlas of papua new guinea
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moving manipulate from papua new guinea Business Directory
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PNG think & Search
papua new guinea
incl. GoPNG & NGO links; Who's Who;
1. All twenty-eight member express of the European Union
papua new guinea
are besides members of the WTO in their own right:
Austria
papua new guinea
Belgium
papua new guinea
Bulgaria
papua new guinea
Croatia
papua new guinea
Cyprus
papua new guinea
Czech Republic
papua new guinea
Denmark
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Estonia
papua new guinea
Finland
papua new guinea
France
papua new guinea
Germany
papua new guinea
Greece
papua new guinea
Hungary
papua new guinea
Ireland
papua new guinea
Italy
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Latvia
papua new guinea
Lithuania
papua new guinea
Luxembourg
papua new guinea
Malta
papua new guinea
Netherlands
papua new guinea
Poland
papua new guinea
Portugal
papua new guinea
Romania
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Slovakia
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Slovenia
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Spain
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Sweden
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United Kingdom
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